iots_Current_Folio_10K

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


Form 10‑K


(Mark One)

     ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

OR

     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

001‑37582

(Commission File No.)


 

ADESTO TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)


Delaware

16‑1755067

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

3600 Peterson Way
Santa Clara, California

95054

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

(408) 400‑0578

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

  

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None


Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes  ☐    No  ☒

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.   Yes  ☐    No  ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes  ☐    No  ☒

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on June 30, 2018, based on the closing price of $8.40 for shares of the Registrant’s common stock as reported by The Nasdaq Stock Market, was approximately $152.1 million. Shares of common stock held by each executive officer, director and their affiliated holders have been excluded on the grounds that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. The registrant has no non-voting common equity.

As of March 4, 2019, there were 29,644,787 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The registrant intends to file a definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018. Portions of such proxy statement are incorporated by reference into Part II and Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

 

Part I

 

Item 1. 

Business

2

Item 1A. 

Risk Factors

12

Item 1B. 

Unresolved Staff Comments

34

Item 2. 

Properties

34

Item 3. 

Legal Proceedings

34

Item 4. 

Mine Safety Disclosures

34

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

Item 5. 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

35

Item 6. 

Selected Financial Data

37

Item 7. 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

38

Item 7A. 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

48

Item 8. 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

53

Item 9. 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

89

Item 9A. 

Controls and Procedures

89

Item 9B. 

Other Information

89

 

 

 

 

Part III

 

Item 10. 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

90

Item 11. 

Executive Compensation

90

Item 12. 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

90

Item 13. 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

90

Item 14. 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

90

 

 

 

 

Part IV

 

Item 15. 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

90

Item 16. 

Form 10-K Summary

93

 

 

 

 


 

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PART I

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This report contains forward-looking statements. All statements contained in this report other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “potentially,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “expect,” “seek” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment, and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, levels of activity, performance or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. We undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this report to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations, except as required by law.

As used in this report, the terms “Adesto,” “we,” “us,” and “our” mean Adesto Technologies Corporation and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.

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ITEM 1.       BUSINESS

Overview

We are a leading provider of innovative, application-specific semiconductors and embedded systems that provide the key building blocks of Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices operating on networks worldwide. Our broad portfolio of semiconductor and embedded technologies are optimized for connected IoT devices used in industrial, consumer, communications and medical applications. Through expert design, systems expertise and proprietary intellectual property, we enable our customers to differentiate their systems where it matters most for IoT: longer battery life, greater reliability, higher performance, integrated intelligence and lower cost. Through our solutions, we enable seamless access to data and control of ‘things’ in the connected world.

‘Internet of Things’ describes the technology paradigm that infuses intelligence and connectivity in the physical world to transform human experience and enhance business outcomes. The ability to integrate sensing and control technologies with communication functions is allowing ordinary objects to interact with their environment and communicate in a broad network. The Internet connected people together, and IoT is connecting things.  IoT transformation is occurring across many segments from consumer markets to healthcare to the broad industrial segment.

We have deep experience across a variety of technologies used in IoT deployments in many segments.  Our products are shipping in a broad range of connected products from smart utility meters to wearable fitness trackers and medical monitors to home automation and building control systems to satellite communications and fleet management.

Our customers use our broad portfolio of products and systems to design and build solutions within their own end markets. Our products are designed to deliver system performance and cost advantages to the end customers in their IoT deployments. These products can be classified into three broad groups:  Application Specific Non-Volatile Memory, Embedded Systems, and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs).

Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) is a key component in every system design. It sits at the core of every system and stores critical programs and data, controls how the system boots, and affects overall performance. We design and deliver ultra-low power, smart NVM devices that enable a new class of connected applications. We sell our NVM devices directly to leading original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and original design manufacturers (ODMs) who select our memories because of their distinct advantages for specific applications. Unlike commodity NVM devices, our value-add products are designed with the target system requirements in mind, enabling significant improvements in system performance and power consumption.

Our Embedded Systems offerings consist of edge devices (chips for communication and control), edge-gateways (for bridging between networks), and software and management tools to manage the deployment of these solutions. Our solutions are used by a wide array of OEMs and system integrators across a broad spectrum of Industrial IoT markets.

With our Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) and intellectual property (IP) solutions, we help our customers who include OEMs, service providers, semiconductor vendors, and systems houses to design more optimized solutions for their end-markets. We complement their in-house system application knowledge and combine our IP with theirs to design and deliver exclusive, custom chips. By shrinking customers’ systems into custom ASICs, we are able to significantly cut their product unit costs, while boosting their product performance, reliability and providing product differentiation and protection. We combine our expertise in chip design and supply chain management to deliver finished products that help customers optimize their bills of materials (BOMs) and electronic system designs. We receive non-recurring engineering (NRE) revenue for designing each ASIC along with license fees for any of our IP which is incorporated into the ASIC, and once the customer transitions to production, we supply the actual ASICs for the life of the product. Our ASIC team has completed over 200 successful chips designed in a broad range of applications. Our

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custom ASICs, which are capable of integration with our embedded offerings, enables Adesto to provide unique future differentiation for our Industrial IoT (“IIoT”) customers.

The IIoT is a key area for Adesto, and this is where our solutions converge to provide unique value. The IIoT refers to communities of rules-based, self-directed devices that reside in commercial or industrial environments and operate with little or no human interaction. These devices are found in environments that are often harsh in nature (e.g., extreme temperature, vibration, noise, humidity, dust) with intermittent connectivity. Specialized requirements of the IIoT include non-compromising control capability, proven reliability, hardened security, and product longevity. Unlike the consumer IoT, the IIoT has many business logic and mission critical requirements and long product lifecycles. The nature of evolving commercial and industrial environments means that IIoT systems must integrate decades of existing and in-service infrastructure that is already deployed in the field. When these solutions are connected, they generally communicate with protocols developed over many years which are often dedicated to specific applications. In IIoT deployments, new systems which require utilizing Internet Protocol (TCP/IP based networks) must interoperate with systems running mature operational technology protocols such as LonWorks, BacNet and Modbus. We believe that bridging this gap is an opportunity for Adesto.

In addition to the IIoT, significant markets for our ASIC and IP solutions include the communications market – both wireless and wireline and certain consumer segments. The emergence of new communications standards including 5G, next-generation DSL, as well as the demand for broader, cheaper satellite broadband access, coupled with the need to provide security of information are just a few of the emerging trends that will drive demand for new high-performance, highly reliable, and highly integrated solutions that can be facilitated by an ASIC.

We were originally incorporated in California in January 2006, and reincorporated in Delaware in October 2015. We completed our initial public offering, or IPO, of common stock in October 2015. Prior to 2018, our business was solely focused on designing and delivering application-specific NVM products.  In May 2018, we completed the acquisition of S3 Asic Semiconductors Limited, or S3 Semiconductors, a provider of analog, mixed-signal and radio frequency (“RF”) custom ASICs and IP cores. This transaction formed the basis of our ASIC business.  In September 2018, we completed the acquisition of Echelon Corporation, a pioneer in developing open-standard control networking platforms. This transaction formed the basis of our Embedded Systems business.  These acquisitions have changed our business profile significantly. We now offer a broad array of semiconductor and embedded systems products that provide powerful advantages to our IoT customers. Our solutions go far beyond memory devices and include application-specific semiconductors for communication and control at the edge of IoT, smart gateways, network management platforms and tools for our customers to deploy our solutions within their businesses. We believe there is unique value to be gained as we look to future roadmaps that leverage combined solutions.

Our principal executive offices are located at 3600 Peterson Way, Santa Clara, California 95054 and our main telephone number is (408) 400‑0578. We also have regional offices in China, the Czech Republic, Ireland, Portugal, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom. Our website is www.adestotech.com. The contents of our website are not incorporated into, or otherwise to be regarded as part of, this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Our Solutions

Our broad product portfolio includes non-volatile memory devices, analog and mixed-signal ASICs and IP cores, standard communication and control chips for IoT edge, communication modules, gateways and edge-servers. We also provide software, software development kits (SDKs), tools, and other solutions to help customers get to market quickly and easily with our products.

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Memory Products

Most IoT edge and other electronic systems require NVMs to store executable firmware, update this firmware over the air (OTA) and log important data collected at the edge for future upload into the cloud. Our NVM products are created with specific features in mind and improve performance while dramatically reducing energy consumption and extending battery life. Reliability, enhanced security, product longevity and system cost are other decision factors for all customers, and particularly for IIoT applications. We optimize each product family for specific applications such as Execute-in-Place operation, datalogging and battery-operated devices. 

Our products allow for greater efficiency than competing commodity NVM products in storing small packets of data for the IoT. This simplifies the microcontroller operation for data-logging, enables dramatic increases in battery life and enhances the reliability of the flash memory components. By incorporating power management features in our NVM products, we enable our customers to reduce the number of components and the overall footprint of their systems, thereby lowering the total cost of their systems. Some of our products can significantly improve system performance and power consumption by enabling the use of intelligent design to accelerate data handling capability between microprocessor and memory components.

Adesto’s value-add NVM products include:

DataFlash. Our DataFlash family is specially designed for data-logging applications such as smart meters, industrial and home automation sensing, health and fitness tracking. This family features byte-write capability and integrated Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), simplifying and minimizing the associated software stack. Offloading the MCU also reduces the overall system energy consumption.

Fusion Serial Flash. Our Fusion Serial Flash family pioneered wide voltage operation and ultra-deep power down modes which allows battery operated devices to be designed more cost effectively and maximize the battery life. These devices are designed for use in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications including wearables, IoT edge products and RF modules.

EcoXiP. Our EcoXiP double data rate (DDR) Octal interface product family represents a new generation of non-volatile memory products ideal for execute-in-place (XiP) applications in embedded IoT systems. Unlike other NVM devices which are primarily in sleep mode, EcoXiP is intended to be active during system operation.  EcoXiP features enable significant reduction in operating power while improving processor performance. EcoXiP’s unique concurrent read and write feature reduces required memory size for Over-the-Air (OTA) updates and offers designers flexibility for future firmware code-size increases.  A proprietary pre-fetching scheme to optimize throughput is another key performance innovation. EcoXiP also offers best-in-class power management features.

MavriqCM. Our MavriqCM is an application specific NVM device intended specifically for mobile camera modules. Technology-enabled fast write speeds enabled by unique technology reduce camera module calibration time during the manufacturing process, thereby increasing manufacturing efficiency and reducing cost. MavriqCM is an extremely low-power device with significantly improved reliability during low voltage operation, an important requirement for any mobile device.

In addition to value-add and application-specific memories, Adesto offers high-quality Standard Serial Flash devices with industry standard features to store boot or program code with a low-pin-count standard serial interface. Adesto’s Standard Serial Flash products are used in a variety of applications including smart home applications, consumer electronics, and industrial applications which demand quality and performance.

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Adesto offers a variety of advanced package options for most of its product line. These include wafer-level Chip Scale Package (CSP) for very small footprint applications and Known Good Die (KGD) for incorporation into System-in-Package (SiP) and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) solutions.

Embedded Systems Solutions

Our embedded components, modules, edge servers and software enable OEMs and system integrators to quickly develop IIoT devices for their end users. With Adesto’s embedded solutions, OEMs, application developers, and integrators can rapidly build innovative and interoperable solutions that meet the unique requirements of the IIoT, such as automation and control, industrial-strength reliability, and scalability. Our solutions enable customers to reduce energy consumption, capital and operating costs, and maintenance; more accurately control business-critical conditions; establish a platform for additional networked applications; and collect data for better asset utilization, increased efficiencies, and powerful predictive analytics. We categorize our products in a three-tier architecture: an edge device tier, an edge server tier, and a management tier.

Edge Device Tier. Products in the edge device tier include chips, Systems on Chips (SoCs), and protocol stacks for control and communications which are embedded in Industrial IoT devices such as load controllers, lighting ballasts, meters, and thermostats to enable them to act as peers working together to collect data and take cooperative action. These individual devices are managed by edge servers, such as our SmartServer™ IoT edge server.

Edge Server Tier. At the edge server tier, various control technologies and protocols are unified and supervised so that local decisions can be made at the device tier levels. An example of an edge server is the SmartServer™ IoT. Other products in this tier include the i.LON 700 edge router and network interface. In general, these products southbound to control protocols such as LonWorks technology, BACnet, and Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP) and northbound to remote clients, web applications, and cloud services through an IP interface. They feature open APIs for control and IoT use cases.

Management Tier. At the management tier, our solutions connect the edge server tiers to enterprise software / cloud / information technology solutions, so business rules can be established for the control system, and operational data can be archived for later analysis. Products in this tier include the IzoT Net Server and Commissioning Tool which enable IoT network deployment, the SmartServer IoT Central Management System (CMS) which allows devices connected to the SmartServer to be easily accessed, and application programming interfaces (APIs) for developers and integrators to create custom solutions.

Analog, Mixed-Signal and RF ASIC and IP Products

We provide analog, mixed-signal and RF ASICs and IP blocks, and manage every aspect of supplying high-quality devices to our customers.

Full Custom ASICs. Our custom ASICs are analog-intensive mixed-signal solutions that provide OEMs with many advantages, often enabling them to reduce bill-of-materials costs by 80% or more while creating smaller systems with fewer components. In addition, custom ASICs can provide systems with significant performance enhancements, lower power consumption, greater reliability and less risk of obsolescence. A sample of our portfolio of full-custom ASICs includes:

·

Satellite L-band transceivers

·

Analog-baseband ASIC for broadband wireless access

·

Embedded ASIC for critical industrial flow-control

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·

Precision digitization ASIC for portable DNA sequencing

·

Mixed-signal ASIC with machine learning for a consumer Augmented Reality (AR) application

·

Wireless power transmit/receive ASICs

Analog, Mixed-Signal and RF IP Cores. We leverage our high-quality, silicon-proven IP blocks in custom ASIC designs and we also license our IP to third parties. Our continually growing portfolio of analog and mixed signal IP cores offers class-leading performance, power consumption and area. Products include:

·

Analog-Front-End (AFE) IP optimized for communications applications such as LTE-A,802.11ac/ax and G.Fast, multi-mode GNSS, and PLC comprising data convertors, clocking and auxiliary circuitry tailored for exact performance, power and area

·

Data Converters including Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) targeting high-speed applications and high-precision applications

·

Power and Reference IP including a comprehensive portfolio of both linear regulators and DC-DC converters in addition to Power-on-Reset and reference circuitry; as well as a silicon-proven customizable Power Management IC solution targeting portable consumer devices

·

RF building blocks including Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs), Mixers, Variable Gain Amplifiers (VGAs) rectifiers, transmitters, and power amplifiers targeting cellular, satellite, digital video broadcasting (DVB) and IMS Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) applications

·

Clock IP comprising versatile programmable Phase Locked Loops (PLLs) with low jitter and low power, ideal for power constrained applications

·

Embedded sensor IP that provides for real-time precision temperature sensing for SoC performance optimization and characterization

Customers

For our semiconductor products, our end customers include leading tier‑1 OEMs and ODMs that use our products across multiple industries and applications. During the year ended December 31, 2018, more than 2,000 end customers purchased our products.

We generate most of our revenue from sales of our NVM products to independent, non-exclusive distributors of our memory products, which many of our end customers use as an alternative means of fulfillment to direct purchases from us. For the year ended December 31, 2018, sales of our products to Arrow Electronics accounted for approximately 17% of our revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2017, sales of our products to Arrow Electronics and SAS Electronic Company accounted for approximately 18% and 10%, respectively, of our revenue. For the year ended December 31, 2016, sales of our products to Arrow Electronics and SAS Electronic Company accounted for approximately 14% and 11%, respectively, of our revenue. While no end customers accounted for 10% or more of our revenue in 2018 and 2017 through direct sales, one end customer accounted for 10% or more of our revenue in 2016 through sales to distributors. A majority of our revenue for 2018 was generated by approximately 32 end customers.

For our embedded systems products, during the year ended December 31, 2018, we had two customers that accounted for a significant portion of our revenues: Avnet Europe Comm VA (“Avnet”), the primary distributor of our IIoT products in Europe and Japan, and Engenuity Systems, Inc., a direct customer in the United States. 

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For our ASIC products, our customers include tier-one satellite operators such as Inmarsat and Iridium, industrial customers such as Flowserve, and wireless access customers. Initial revenues are achieved during the design phase of the ASIC when our engineering teams are working closely with our customers to architect and implement the most effective ASIC solution which will meet the customers’ requirements. Each ASIC project is underpinned by a specific contract covering the scope of the ASIC development, the NRE fees and any applicable IP license fees. The NRE and IP license fees are payable upon the successful achievement of project milestones as defined in the contract.

Sales

We sell our products through our worldwide sales organization and through our channel of representatives and distributors. We organize our sales resources by region, within which sales personnel may work directly with large OEM customers. We have sales personnel covering the Americas, Asia Pacific and Europe, Middle East and Africa.

We also work closely with select partners who lead in their markets to demonstrate to potential customers the value of our combined solutions. This includes microcontroller vendors, cloud providers, system integrators, and others.

We work directly with customers to have our NVM devices designed into and qualified for their products, which we refer to as design wins. Although we maintain direct sales, support and development relationships with our end customers, most of our NVM products are sold to end customers through our distribution partners.

We sell our embedded platform to OEMs and system integrators in the building, lighting, and industrial controls markets directly and through distribution worldwide. These efforts are supported with application engineering, technical support, and industry experts working out of the U.S. as well as China, Japan, South Korea, India, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Regional sales personnel work directly with large OEM customers such as Honeywell, Schneider, Siemens, Trane, and others.

Our IP products are sold to third parties primarily through our Design & Reuse web portal and through representatives located in the United States and Asia.  In certain cases we are able to upsell to complete ASIC delivery by leveraging our IP.

Manufacturing

Semiconductor Manufacturing

For our semiconductor products including edge devices, ASICs and NVMs, we employ a fabless manufacturing business model and rely on third-party suppliers for all phases of the manufacturing process, including fabrication, assembly and testing. Our fabless business model allows us to leverage the expertise of industry-leading suppliers in such areas as fabrication, assembly, quality control and assurance, reliability and testing, and avoid the significant costs and risks associated with owning and operating such manufacturing operations. These suppliers also are responsible for procurement of raw materials used in the production of our products. As a result, we are able to focus our resources on product design, additional quality assurance, marketing and customer support.

We do not have a guaranteed level of production capacity from any of our suppliers’ facilities for the production of our products. We carefully qualify each of our suppliers and their subcontractors and processes to ensure they meet our standards for quality and reliability.

Wafer Fabrication. We currently manufacture the majority of our semiconductor product at United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC) in Taiwan. In addition to UMC, we use other foundries including XMC, a foundry in Wuhan, China, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC) based in Shanghai, China, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing (TSMC) in Taiwan, X-Fab in France, Winbond Corporation in Taiwan and others.   

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Assembly, Testing and Wafer Probe. We maintain multiple sources for assembly and final testing of our products. Amkor Technology, Inc. in Taiwan, Korea and the Philippines, Deca Technologies in the Philippines, as well as Greatek Electronics Inc. in Taiwan currently provide substantially all of our assembly and final test services for our NVM products. Our wafer probing is performed by King Yuan Electronics Co., Ltd. in Taiwan. Assembly of our ASIC products is done through Advanced Semiconductor Engineering (ASE) in Taiwan. We continually monitor the manufacturing and testing of our products at all of our contractors to ensure that our manufacturing and testing procedures are properly implemented. Based on industry standard requirements, we perform reliability stress testing on the products that we produce and sell. Through this testing, we can detect and accelerate the presence of defects that may arise over the life of a product. As part of our total quality assurance program, our quality management system has been certified to ISO 9001:2115 standards. Our foundry, assembly and test vendors are also ISO 9001 certified.

System-Level Manufacturing

We use design and manufacturing services from third parties where it reduces our costs and takes advantage of consolidated purchasing power. We outsource all of our system-level manufacturing and limit our internal supply chain activities to quality inspection, system integration, custom configuration, final testing, and order fulfillment. We maintain work in process and finished good inventory in order to quickly respond to customer orders placed with relatively short delivery schedule.

For products requiring board level manufacturing, we utilize both third-party ODMs and contract electronic manufacturers (CEMs). CEMs procure component level materials and assemble, test, and inspect the final products to our design specifications. Our ODM vendors perform the same services as CEMs but also provide design services to our product requirements.

Research and Development

We believe that our continued success depends on our ability to both introduce improved versions of our existing solutions and to develop new solutions for the markets that we serve. We have made and intend to continue to make investments in product development, while implementing strategies for overall product development cost reduction where appropriate. As we continue with product and technology development, we will file the appropriate patent disclosures to protect our innovation and enhance our intellectual property position.  

As of December 31, 2018, we had a core team of 142 engineers involved in research and development primarily located in our research and development design center at our headquarters in Santa Clara (California), Dublin (Ireland), Cork (Ireland), Prague (Czech Republic), and Lisbon (Portugal). For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, our research and development expense was $20.3 million, $13.6 million and $15.4 million, respectively.

Marketing

Our marketing efforts focus on two key elements: awareness and demand generation/sales enablement. From an awareness perspective, we seek to generate visibility and credibility of our brand, the products and solutions that we offer, and the capabilities and benefits that they bring. Our marketing program comprises press releases, advertising, collateral, published technical and thought-leadership papers, newsletters, and customer case studies describing the benefits our customers are seeing from implementing our solutions. We also participate in industry events and trade shows, speak at relevant industry conferences, and are continually enhancing our global websites.

Marketing also focuses on making it easier for our sales teams and partners to sell our solutions. We do this through a variety of demand generation and sales enablement activities such as webinars/seminars, lead-generation from our participation at industry exhibitions and conferences, and the production of focused selling tools. We also actively participate in LonMark® International, an association directly focused on the adoption of our embedded systems

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products. We enable our sales teams through a systematic pipeline management process, whereby prospects are identified, qualified, and tracked, with the expectation that a portion of these opportunities are ultimately closed.

Competition

We operate in the highly competitive global embedded electronics market as well as the semiconductor memory and ASIC markets. We expect competition to increase and intensify as more and larger companies enter our markets. Increased competition could result in price pressure, reduced profitability and loss of market share, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, revenue and operating results.

NVM

Our NVM competitors range from large, international companies offering a wide range of commodity NVM products to companies specializing in other alternative, emerging memory technologies. Our primary competitors in the NVM market include Macronix International Co. Ltd., Micron Technology, Inc., Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, Winbond Electronics Corp., and several China based suppliers who primarily cater to the local markets. Among these large memory suppliers, we compete primarily on an overall value proposition and not on a product or technology basis. We expect competition in our current markets to increase in the future as existing competitors improve or expand their product offerings and as new companies enter these markets.

Embedded Systems

Our key competitors for our Smart Transceiver SoCs include established companies which make wireless and wired communications transceivers and modules such as Semtech, Maxim Integrated Products, STMicroelectronics, Texas Instruments, and Tridium. We also see competition from embedded control companies like Freescale Semiconductor and Intel Corporation. In addition, the market has attracted and will continue to attract well-funded, venture-backed start-up companies. Key industry standard and trade group competitors include BACnet, KNX, DALI, DeviceNet, HART, Profibus, ZigBee, and the ZWave Alliance.

ASIC

Our custom ASIC competition comes from a range of custom ASIC and design service providers both small and large including Global Unichip Corp. (GUC), eASIC (acquired by Intel Corporation in 2018), Faraday, Open-Silicon (now SiFive), eSilicon and Ansem. A range of large diverse semiconductor companies including Microsemi (a Microchip company), On Semiconductor, Socionext, Megachips, Toshiba, and others also provide ASIC design services and support. We have transitioned from a design services model to a full turn-key ASIC supply model, which enables us to compete favorably. We also have unique relationships with foundries and deep supply chain expertise. Our broad mixed-signal and RF IP portfolio together with our embedded mixed-signal ASIC design expertise enables us to sustain a competitive advantage.

IP Products

We compete against large companies that offer a broad range of analog and mix-signal IP cores, including electronic design automation (“EDA”) companies such as Cadence Design Systems and Synopsys. We also see competition from smaller dedicated providers of specific categories of IP cores such as data converters. We expect competition to continue, but believe we compete favorably in this market by providing high-quality, highly reliable

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products that are easy to integrate into designs, with highly responsive and experienced customer support directly from our design engineers.

Competitive Factors

Our ability to compete successfully depends on elements both within and outside of our control, including industry and general economic trends. Many of our competitors are substantially larger, have greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution, customer support and other resources, are more established than we are, and have significantly better brand recognition and broader product offerings which may enable them to better withstand adverse economic or market conditions in the future. In each of our markets, our competitors include both small companies as well as some of the largest companies in the electronics industry, operating either alone or together with trade associations and partners. To maintain and improve our competitive position, we must keep pace with the evolving needs of our customers and continue to develop and introduce new products, features, and services in a timely and efficient manner. Our ability to compete successfully in the rapidly evolving embedded and semiconductor markets depend on several factors, including:

·

the price and features of our products such as adaptability, scalability, functionality, ease of use, the ability to integrate with other products, and conformance with established industry standards;

·

performance of our semiconductor products, as measured by speed, energy consumption and other factors;

·

the ease of implementation of our products by customers;

·

the strength of our customer relationships;

·

our customer service and support;

·

our products’ cost effectiveness for the total solution relative to that of our competitors;

·

our ability to anticipate changes in customer requirements and to develop new or improved products that meet these requirements in a timely manner;

·

our market awareness and product reputation; and

·

warranties, indemnities, and other contractual terms.

We believe we compete favorably with respect to each of these factors.

Additionally, while our embedded product implementations are proprietary to Adesto and are often protected by unique, patented processes, key technologies such as LonWorks and IzoT are open, meaning that many of our basic control networking patents are broadly licensed without royalties or license fees. For instance, all of the network management commands required to develop software that competes with our IzoT Net Server software are published. As a result, our customers are capable of developing hardware and software solutions that compete with many of our products.

Government Regulation

Many of our products and the markets and industries in which they are used are subject to U.S. and foreign regulation as well as local, industry-specific codes and requirements. For example, the power line medium, which is the communications medium used by some of our products, is subject to special regulations in North America, Europe, and

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Japan. In general, these regulations limit the ability of companies to use power lines as a communication medium. In addition, some of our competitors have attempted to use regulatory actions to reduce the market opportunity for our products or to increase the market opportunity for their own products. We have resisted these efforts and will continue to oppose competitors' efforts to use regulation to impede competition in the markets for our products. Our business might also be affected by other regulatory factors, including public utility commission or similar approvals and government mandates. This could lead to an extension of the sales cycle or even cancellation of a customer's order.

In addition, the market for our products might experience a movement toward standards-based protocols driven by governmental action. To the extent that we do not adopt such protocols or do not succeed in achieving adoption of other protocols we use as standards or de facto standards, sales of our products might be adversely affected. The adoption of voluntary standards or the passage of governmental regulations that are incompatible with our products or technology could limit the market opportunity for our products, which could harm our revenues, results of operations, and financial condition.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends in part on our ability to protect our products and technologies from unauthorized third-party copying and use. To accomplish this, we rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, copyrights and trademarks, as well as customary contractual protections. As of December 31, 2018, we held 154 patents that expire at various times between January 2019 and March 2037 and had 41 U.S. patent applications pending. We also held 43 foreign patents that expire at various times between November 2019 and March 2034 and had 44 foreign patent applications pending.

We seek to file for patents that have broad application in the semiconductor and embedded systems industries and that would provide a competitive advantage. However, there can be no assurance that our pending patent application or any future applications will be approved, that any issued patents will provide us with competitive advantages or will not be challenged by third parties, or that the patents of others will not have an adverse effect on our ability to do business. In addition, there can be no assurance that others will not independently develop substantially equivalent intellectual property or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or intellectual property, or disclose such intellectual property or trade secrets, or that we can effectively protect our intellectual property.

In addition to the intellectual property that we developed, we have acquired and licensed technology from third parties for incorporation in our products. In January 2007, we entered into a license agreement with Axon Technologies Corp. Pursuant to this license agreement, we have rights in Axon’s patents and trade secrets covering, among other things, Axon’s programmable metallization cell, or PMC, technology, which is a component of our Conductive Bridging Random Access Memory, or CBRAM, technology. This license provides us with broad rights to use and sub-license this technology, and we have the exclusive right to make, have made by authorized foundries or integrated device manufacturers, use, sell, lease, offer for sale, and import products covered by Axon’s licensed patents and trade secrets in certain fields of use. The license will last for the lifetime of the licensed patents, which currently ends in September 2026. We pay a royalty for use of the licensed intellectual property in our products. In July 2012, we purchased certain flash memory product assets from Atmel Corporation. As part of the asset purchase, Atmel granted us non-exclusive, perpetual and irrevocable licenses to its patent portfolio for development of flash memory products. In December 2017, we entered into a license agreement with TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Company. The license is for two years and is a non-exclusive, non-transferable, non-assignable license to use and evaluate certain TowerJazz technologies.

We also hold several trademarks in the United States and select foreign countries, many of which are registered, including Adesto, the Adesto logo, Echelon, the Echelon logo, Lumewave by Echelon, LumInsight, LonBuilder, LonTalk, LonWorks, Neuron, LON, LonPoint, LonMaker, IzoT, LNS, LonManager, Digital Home, and NodeBuilder.

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Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we had 265 employees. Of these full-time employees, 142 were engaged in research and development, 70 in sales and marketing, 27 in operations and support and 26 in general and administrative capacities. The substantial majority of our employees are based in the United States and Europe, although we have small numbers of personnel in Asia. None of our employees are represented by a labor union. We have not experienced any work stoppages. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Available Information

We make available our Annual Reports on Form 10‑K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q, Current Reports on Form 8‑K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, free of charge on our website at www.adestotech.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission or SEC. Additionally, copies of materials filed by us with the SEC may be accessed at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

The contents of the websites referred to above are not incorporated into this report. Further, our references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

 

ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. Our business, operating results, financial condition, or prospects could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks and uncertainties. If any of these risks actually occurs, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment. Our business, operating results, financial performance, or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

We have a history of losses which may continue in the future, and we cannot be certain that we will achieve or sustain profitability.

We have incurred net losses since our inception. We incurred net losses of $21.4 million, $5.7 million, and $11.6 million for 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As of December 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $121.3 million. We expect to incur significant expenses related to the continued development and expansion of our business, including in connection with our efforts to pursue opportunities in emerging IoT markets, develop and improve upon our technology, maintain and enhance our research and development and sales and marketing activities and hire additional personnel. Further, revenue may not grow or revenue may decline for a number of possible reasons, many of which are outside our control, including a decline in demand for our products, increased competition, business conditions that adversely affect the semiconductor memory industry, including reduced demand for products in the end markets that we serve, or our failure to capitalize on growth opportunities. If we fail to generate sufficient revenue to support our operations, we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability.

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We rely on third parties to manufacture, package, assemble and test the semiconductor components comprising our products, which exposes us to a number of risks, including reduced control over manufacturing and delivery timing and potential exposure to price fluctuations, which could result in a loss of revenue or reduced profitability.

As a fabless semiconductor company, we outsource the manufacturing, packaging, assembly and testing of our semiconductor components to, and rely on a limited number of, third-party foundries and assembly and testing service providers. For example, we use two foundries, United Microelectronics Corporation in Taiwan and XMC in Wuhan, China, for the production of our flash memory products and a single foundry, Altis Semiconductor S.N.C. in France (acquired by X-FAB Silicon Foundries in 2016), for our Mavriq and Moneta products. Our primary assembly and testing contractor is Amkor Technology, Inc. in Taiwan, Korea and the Philippines. Our wafer probing is performed by King Yuan Electronics Co., Ltd. in Taiwan.

Relying on third-party manufacturing, assembly and testing presents a number of risks, including but not limited to:

·

capacity and materials shortages during periods of high demand;

·

reduced control over delivery schedules, inventories and quality;

·

the unavailability of, or potential delays in obtaining access to, key process technologies;

·

the inability to achieve required production or test capacity and acceptable yields on a timely basis;

·

misappropriation of our intellectual property;

·

the third parties’ ability to perform its obligations due to bankruptcy or other financial constraints;

·

limited warranties on wafers or products supplied to us; and

·

potential increases in prices.

Any of the foregoing risks may affect our ability to meet customer demand. For example, a former silicon wafer supplier suddenly declared bankruptcy in December 2013 and abruptly shut down its foundry. As a result, we were unable to fulfill a portion of our customers’ orders in 2014 while we transitioned wafer production to a new foundry.

We currently do not have long-term supply contracts with our third-party contract manufacturers for the products we sell to generate the bulk of our revenue, our NVM products, including United Microelectronics Corporation and Amkor Technology, Inc. Therefore, they are not obligated to perform services or supply components to us for any specific period, in any specific quantities, or at any specific price, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order. During periods of high demand and tight inventories, our third-party foundries and assembly and testing contractors may allocate capacity to the production of other companies’ components while reducing deliveries to us, or significantly raise their prices. In particular, they may allocate capacity to other customers that are larger and better financed than us or that have long-term agreements, decreasing the capacity available to us. Shortages of capacity available to us may be caused by the actions of their other, large customers that may be difficult to predict, such as major product launches. If we need other foundries or assembly and test contractors because of increased demand, or if we are unable to obtain timely and adequate deliveries from our providers, we might not be able to cost-effectively and quickly retain other vendors to satisfy our requirements. Because the lead-time needed to establish a relationship with a new third-party supplier could be several quarters, there is no readily available alternative source of supply for any specific component. In addition, the time and expense to qualify a new foundry could result in additional expense, diversion of resources or lost sales, any of which would negatively impact our financial results.

In the event that we expand production of a component to include a new contract manufacturer, it may take approximately 18 to 24 months to allow a transition from our current foundry or assembly services provider to the new provider. We may experience difficulty migrating production to a new contract manufacturer and, consequently, may experience reduced yields, delays in component deliveries and increased research and development expense. The inability by us or our third-party manufacturers to effectively and efficiently transition our technology to their

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infrastructure may adversely affect our operating results and our gross margin. There can be no assurance that we will be able to find suitable replacements for our third-party contract manufacturers.

If any of our current or future foundry partners or assembly and test subcontractors significantly increases the costs of wafers or other materials, interrupts or reduces our supply, including for reasons outside of their control, or if any of our relationships with our suppliers is terminated, our operating results could be adversely affected. During 2017, one of our foundry partners increased the costs of wafers to us. Although such increase did not have a material impact on our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 and is not expected to have a material impact in the near term, there can be no assurances that such additional increases will not have a material adverse impact on our future operating results. Such increases could also damage our customer relationships, result in lost revenue, cause a loss in market share or damage our reputation.

We may be unable to match production with customer demand for a variety of reasons including our inability to accurately forecast customer demand or the capacity constraints of contract manufacturers, which could adversely affect our operating results.

We make planning and spending decisions, including determining production levels, production schedules, component procurement commitments, personnel needs and other resource requirements, based on our estimates of product demand and customer requirements. Our products are typically purchased pursuant to individual purchase orders. While our customers may provide us with their demand forecasts, they are not contractually committed to buy any quantity of products beyond purchase orders. Furthermore, many of our customers may increase, decrease, cancel or delay purchase orders already in place without significant penalty. The short-term nature of commitments by our customers and the possibility of unexpected changes in demand for their products reduce our ability to accurately estimate future customer requirements. On occasion, customers may require rapid increases in production, which can strain our resources, necessitate more onerous procurement commitments and reduce our gross margin. If we overestimate customer demand, we may purchase products that we may not be able to sell, which could result in decreases in our prices or write-downs of unsold inventory. Conversely, if we underestimate customer demand or if sufficient manufacturing capacity was unavailable, we would lose sales opportunities and could lose market share or damage our customer relationships. The rapid pace of innovation in our industry could also render significant portions of our inventory obsolete. Excess or obsolete inventory levels could result in unexpected expenses or write-downs of inventory values that could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our quarterly operating results or other operating metrics may fluctuate significantly, which could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

Our quarterly operating results and other operating metrics have fluctuated in the past and may continue to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. We expect that this trend will continue as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:

·

the receipt, reduction, delay or cancellation of orders by large customers;

·

the gain or loss of significant customers and distributors;

·

the timing and success of our launch of new or enhanced products and those of our competitors;

·

market acceptance of our products and our customers’ products;

·

the level of growth or decline in the IoT market;

·

the timing and extent of research and development and sales and marketing expenditures;

·

the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;

·

changes in our product mix;

·

our ability to reduce the manufacturing costs of our products;

·

competitive pressures resulting in lower than expected average selling prices;

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·

fluctuations in sales by and inventory levels of OEMs and ODMs who incorporate our memory products in their products;

·

cyclical and seasonal fluctuations in our markets;

·

fluctuations in the manufacturing yields of our third-party contract manufacturers;

·

events that impact the availability of production capacity at our third-party subcontractors and other interruptions in the supply chain including due to geopolitical events, natural disasters, materials shortages, bankruptcy or other causes;

·

supply constraints for and changes in the cost of the other components incorporated into our customers’ products;

·

the timing of expenses related to the acquisition of technologies or businesses;

·

product rates of return or price concessions in excess of those expected or forecasted;

·

costs associated with the repair and replacement of defective products;

·

unexpected inventory write-downs or write-offs;

·

costs associated with litigation over intellectual property rights and other litigation;

·

the length and unpredictability of the purchasing and budgeting cycles of our customers;

·

loss of key personnel or the inability to attract qualified engineers; and

·

geopolitical events, such as war, threat of war or terrorist actions, or the occurrence of natural disasters.

Any one of the factors above or the cumulative effect of some of the factors above may result in significant fluctuations in our operating results.

The semiconductor industry is highly cyclical and our markets may experience significant cyclical fluctuations in demand as a result of changing economic conditions, budgeting and buying patterns of customers and others factors. As a result of these and other factors affecting demand for our products and our results of operations in any given period, the results of any prior quarterly or annual periods should not be relied upon as indicative of our future revenue or operating performance. Fluctuations in our revenue and operating results could also cause our stock price to decline.

We may experience difficulties in realizing the expected benefits of the acquisitions of S3 Semiconductors and Echelon Corporation and may continue to incur significant acquisition-related costs and transition costs in connection with these completed acquisitions. 

We completed the acquisitions of S3 Semiconductors on May 9, 2018 and the acquisition of Echelon on September 14, 2018. The integration of these businesses has resulted in and continues to result in substantial financial costs and the investment of personnel time and attention and other resources. The success of each acquisition depends in part on our ability to realize the anticipated business opportunities, including certain cost savings and operational efficiencies or synergies, and growth prospects from combining the respective companies with Adesto in an efficient and effective manner. We may never realize these business opportunities and growth prospects and, we may incur additional costs to maintain employee morale and to retain key employees. Management cannot ensure that the elimination of duplicative costs or the realization of other efficiencies will offset the transaction and integration costs in the near term or at all.

 In addition, difficulties integrating with these companies could delay or prevent our achievement of the expected benefits from the acquisitions. 

The market for semiconductor memory products is characterized by declines in average selling prices, which we expect to continue, and which could negatively affect our revenue and margins.

Our customers expect the average selling price of our products to decrease year-over-year and we expect this trend to continue. When such pricing declines occur, we may not be able to mitigate the effects by selling more or higher margin units, or by reducing our manufacturing costs. In such circumstances, our operating results could be materially

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and adversely affected. Our flash memory products have experienced declining average selling prices over their life cycle. The rate of decline may be affected by a number of factors, including relative supply and demand, the level of competition, production costs and technological changes. As a result of the decreasing average selling prices of our products following their launch, our ability to increase or maintain our margins depends on our ability to introduce new or enhanced products with higher average selling prices and to reduce our per-unit cost of sales and our operating costs. We may not be able to reduce our costs as rapidly as companies that operate their own manufacturing, assembly and testing facilities, and our costs may even increase because we do not operate our own manufacturing, assembly or testing facilities, which could also reduce our gross margins. In addition, our new or enhanced products may not be as successful or enjoy as high margins as we expect. If we are unable to offset any reductions in average selling prices by introducing new products with higher average selling prices or reducing our costs, our revenue and margins will be negatively affected and may decrease.

The semiconductor market is highly cyclical and has experienced severe downturns in the past, generally as a result of wide fluctuations in supply and demand, constant and rapid technological change, continuous new product introductions and price erosion. During downturns, periods of intense competition, or the presence of oversupply in the industry, the selling prices for our products may decline at a high rate over relatively short time periods as compared to historical rates of decline. We are unable to predict selling prices for any future periods and may experience unanticipated, sharp declines in selling prices for our products.

Our prospects for growth depend on the growth and development of the emerging IoT industry, and if the market does not develop as we expect, our business prospects may be harmed.

Our products are increasingly being utilized in IoT edge devices. The IoT industry is nascent and is characterized by rapidly changing technologies, devices and connectivity requirements, evolving industry standards and changing customer demands. The continued development of IoT depends in part on significant growth in the number of connected devices. Such growth is affected by various factors, including the continued growth in the use of mobile operator networks and the Internet to connect an increasing number and variety of devices, price reductions for key hardware and software components, innovation of other components of the IoT nodes toward low-power formats, and the continued development of IoT standards and protocols. Without these continued developments, IoT might not gain widespread market acceptance and our business could suffer. Security and privacy concerns, evolving business practices and consumer preferences may also slow the growth and development of IoT. Because our revenue growth ultimately depends upon the success of IoT, our business may suffer as a result of slowing or declining growth in IoT adoption. Even if the IoT industry does develop, we may not be well positioned or able to penetrate and capitalize on this new market. As a result of these factors, the future revenue and income potential of our business is uncertain.

The markets for our products are evolving, and changing market conditions, such as the introduction of new technologies or changes in customer preferences, may negatively affect demand for our products. If we fail to properly anticipate or respond to changing market conditions, our business prospects and results of operations will suffer.

The semiconductor industry is subject to constant and rapid changes in technology, frequent new product introductions, short product life cycles, rapid product obsolescence and evolving technical standards. New technologies may be introduced that make the current technologies on which our products are based less competitive or obsolete or require us to make changes to our technology that could be expensive and time consuming to implement. Due to the evolving nature of our markets, our future success depends on our ability to accurately anticipate and respond to changes in industry standards, technological requirements, customer and consumer preferences and other market conditions. Our technologies could become obsolete sooner than we expect because of faster than anticipated, or unanticipated, changes in one or more of the industry standards and technological requirements. We may be unable to develop and introduce new or enhanced technologies that satisfy customer requirements and achieve market acceptance in a timely manner or at all, succeed in commercializing the technologies on which we have focused our research and development expenditures to develop or otherwise made significant investments to acquire, and anticipate new industry standards and

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technological changes. If we fail to adapt successfully to technological changes or fail to obtain access to important new technologies, we may be unable to retain customers or attract new customers. Any decrease in demand for our products, or the need for low-power products in general, due to the emergence of competing technologies, changes in customer preferences and requirements or other factors, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

We must continuously develop new and enhanced products, and if we are unable to successfully market our new and enhanced products for which we incur significant expenses to develop, our results of operations and financial condition will be materially adversely affected.

In order to compete effectively in our markets, we must continually design, develop and introduce new and improved products with improved features in a cost-effective manner in response to changing technologies and market demand. This requires us to devote substantial financial and other resources to research and development. We have developed and are continuing to develop next-generation products, such as our Moneta and EcoXiP products, which we expect to be one of the drivers of our future revenue growth. However, we may not succeed in developing and marketing these new and enhanced products. We also face the risk that customers may not value or be willing to bear the cost of incorporating our new and enhanced products into their products, particularly if they believe their customers are satisfied with current solutions. Regardless of the improved features or superior performance of our new and enhanced products, customers may be unwilling to adopt our solutions due to design or pricing constraints, or because they do not want to rely on a single or limited supply source. Because of the extensive time and resources that we invest in developing new and enhanced products, if we are unable to sell customers new generations of our products, our revenue could decline and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows would be negatively affected. For example, we generated limited revenue from sales of our Mavriq products to date. While we expect revenue from our Mavriq products to grow, we may not be able to materially increase our revenue from this product family. Similarly, any of our more recently-introduced products or product families, such as Mavriq and EcoXiP, may not achieve market acceptance and contribute significantly to our revenue. If we are unable to successfully develop and market our new and enhanced products that we have incurred significant expenses developing, our results of operations and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

Our success and future revenue depend on our ability to secure design wins and on our customers’ ability to successfully sell the products that incorporate our solutions. Securing design wins is a lengthy, expensive and competitive process, and may not result in actual orders and sales, which could cause our revenue to decline.

We sell to customers that incorporate our products into their products. A design win occurs after a customer has tested our product, verified that it meets the customer’s requirements, qualified our solutions for their products and placed an order for the purchase of our products. Our customers may need several months to years to test, evaluate and adopt our product and additional time to begin volume production of the product that incorporates our solution. Due to this generally lengthy design cycle, we may experience significant delays from the time we increase our operating expenses and make investments in our products to the time that we generate revenue from sales of these products. Moreover, even if a customer selects our solution, we cannot guarantee that this will result in any sales of our products, as the customer may ultimately change or cancel its product plans, or efforts by our customer to market and sell its product may not be successful. We may not generate any revenue from design wins after incurring the associated costs, which would cause our business and operating results to suffer.

If a current or prospective customer designs a competitor’s solution into its product, it becomes significantly more difficult for us to sell our solutions to that customer because changing suppliers involves significant time, cost, effort and risk for the customer even if our solutions remain compatible with their product design. If current or prospective customers do not include our solutions in their products and we fail to achieve a sufficient number of design wins, our results of operations and business may be harmed.

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We rely on our relationships with OEMs and ODMs to enhance our solutions and market position, and our failure to continue to develop or maintain such relationships in the future would harm our ability to remain competitive.

We develop our products for leading OEMs and ODMs that serve a variety of end markets and are developing devices for wearables, sensors, Bluetooth 4.0 and other IoT applications. For each application, manufacturers create products that incorporate specialized semiconductor technology, which makers of memory products use as the basis for their products. These manufacturers set the specifications for many of the key components to be used on each generation of their products and, in the case of memory components, generally qualify only a few vendors to provide memory components for their products. As each new generation of their products is released, vendors are validated in a similar fashion. We must work closely with semiconductor manufacturers to ensure our products become qualified for use in their products. As a result, maintaining close relationships with leading product manufacturers that are developing devices for wearables, Bluetooth 4.0 and other IoT applications is crucial to the long-term success of our business. We could lose these relationships for a variety of reasons, including our failure to qualify as a vendor, our failure to demonstrate the value of our new solutions, declines in product quality, or if OEMs or ODMs seek to work with vendors with broader product suites, greater production capacity or greater financial resources. If our relationships with key industry participants were to deteriorate or if our solutions were not qualified by our customers, our market position and revenue could be materially and adversely affected.

Our business is dependent on selling through distributors.

Sales through distributors accounted for approximately 65% of our revenues in 2018. We do not have long-term agreements with our distributors, and we and our distributors may each terminate our relationship with little or no advance notice.

Any future adverse conditions in the U.S. or global economies or in the U.S. or global credit markets could materially impact the operations of our distributors. Any deterioration in the financial condition of our distributors or any disruption in the operations of our distributors could adversely impact the flow of our products to our end customers and adversely impact our results of operation. In addition, during an industry or economic downturn, it is possible there will be an oversupply of products and a decrease in demand for our products from our distributors, which could reduce our revenues in a given period. Violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar regulations, or similar laws, by our distributors could have a material adverse impact on our business.

Changes to industry standards and technical requirements relevant to our products and markets could adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

Our products are only a part of larger electronic systems. All products incorporated into these systems must comply with various industry standards and technical requirements created by regulatory bodies or industry participants in order to operate efficiently together. Industry standards and technical requirements in our markets are evolving and may change significantly over time. For our products, the industry standards are developed by the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council, an industry trade organization. In addition, large industry-leading semiconductor and electronics companies play a significant role in developing standards and technical requirements for the product ecosystems within which our products can be used. Our customers also may design certain specifications and other technical requirements specific to their products and solutions. These technical requirements may change as the customer introduces new or enhanced products and solutions.

Our ability to compete in the future will depend on our ability to identify and comply with evolving industry standards and technical requirements. The emergence of new industry standards and technical requirements could render our products incompatible with products developed by other suppliers or make it difficult for our products to meet the requirements of certain of our customers in consumer, industrial, IoT and other markets. As a result, we could be required to invest significant time and effort and to incur significant expense to redesign our products to ensure compliance with relevant standards and requirements. If our products are not in compliance with prevailing industry

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standards and technical requirements for a significant period of time, we could miss opportunities to achieve crucial design wins, our revenue may decline and we may incur significant expenses to redesign our products to meet the relevant standards, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

If sales of our customers’ products decline or if their products do not achieve market acceptance, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

Our revenue depends on our customers’ ability to commercialize their products successfully. The markets for our customers’ products are extremely competitive and are characterized by rapid technological change. Competition in our customers’ markets is based on a variety of factors including price, performance, product quality, marketing and distribution capability, customer support, name recognition and financial strength. As a result of rapid technological change, the markets for our customers’ products are characterized by frequent product introductions, short product life cycles, fluctuating demand and increasing product capabilities. As a result, our customers’ products may not achieve market success or may become obsolete. We cannot assure you that our customers will dedicate the resources necessary to promote and commercialize their products, successfully execute their business strategies for such products, or be able to manufacture such products in quantities sufficient to meet demand or cost-effectively manufacture products at a high volume. Our customers do not have contracts with us that require them to manufacture, distribute or sell any products. Moreover, our customers may develop internally, or in collaboration with our competitors, technology that they may utilize instead of the technology available to them through us. Our customers’ failure to achieve market success for their products, including as a result of general declines in our customers’ markets or industries, could negatively affect their willingness to utilize our products, which may result in a decrease in our revenue and negatively affect our business and operating results.

Our revenue also depends on the timely introduction, quality and market acceptance of our customers’ products that incorporate our solutions. Our customers’ products are often very complex and subject to design complexities that may result in design flaws, as well as potential defects, errors and bugs. We have in the past been subject to delays and project cancellations as a result of design flaws in the products developed by our customers. For example, in 2014, flaws in one of our customer’s products that were unrelated to our memory solutions generated negative publicity for our customer and delayed the product’s release until it could be redesigned. In the past, we have also been subject to delays and project cancellations as a result of changing market requirements, such as the customer adding a new feature, or because a customer’s product fails their end customer’s evaluation or field trial. Customer products may also be delayed due to issues with other vendors of theirs. We incur significant design and development costs in connection with designing our solutions for customers’ products. If our customers discover design flaws, defects, errors or bugs in their products, or if they experience changing market requirements, failed evaluations or field trials, or issues with other vendors, they may delay, change or cancel a project. If we have already incurred significant development costs, we may not be able to recoup those costs, which in turn would adversely affect our business and financial results.

We face competition and expect competition to increase in the future. If we fail to compete effectively, our revenue growth and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.

The global semiconductor market in general, and the semiconductor memory market in particular, are highly competitive. We expect competition to increase and intensify as other semiconductor companies enter our markets, many of which have greater financial and other resources with which to pursue technology development, product design, manufacturing, marketing and sales and distribution of their products. Increased competition could result in price pressure, reduced profitability and loss of market share, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, revenue and operating results. Currently, our competitors range from large, international companies offering a wide range of semiconductor products to companies specializing in other alternative, specialized emerging memory technologies. Our primary competitors include Macronix International Co. Ltd., Micron Technology, Inc., Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, and Winbond Electronics Corp. In addition, as the IoT market opportunity grows, we expect new entrants will enter these markets and existing competitors, including leading semiconductor companies, may

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make significant investments to compete more effectively against our products. These competitors could develop technologies or architectures that make our products or technologies obsolete.

Our ability to compete successfully depends on factors both within and outside of our control, including:

·

the functionality and performance of our products and those of our competitors;

·

our relationships with our customers and other industry participants;

·

prices of our products and prices of our competitors’ products;

·

our ability to develop innovative products;

·

our ability to retain high-level talent, including our management team and engineers; and

·

the actions of our competitors, including merger and acquisition activity, launches of new products and other actions that could change the competitive landscape.

Competition could result in pricing pressure, reduced revenue and profitability and loss of market share, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects. In the event of a market downturn, competition in the markets in which we operate may intensify as our customers reduce their purchase orders. Our competitors that are significantly larger and have greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution, customer support and other resources or more established market recognition than us may be better positioned to accept lower prices and withstand adverse economic or market conditions.

Our customers require our products and our third-party contractors to undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process. If we are unsuccessful or delayed in qualifying any of our products with a customer, our business and operating results would suffer.

Prior to selecting and purchasing our products, our customers typically require that our products undergo extensive qualification processes, which involve testing of our products in the customers’ systems, as well as testing for reliability. This qualification process may continue for several months or years. However, obtaining the requisite qualifications for a memory product does not assure any sales of the product. Even after successful qualification and sales of a product to a customer, a subsequent revision in our third-party contractors’ manufacturing process or our selection of a new contract manufacturer may require a new qualification process, which may result in delays and excess or obsolete inventory. After our products are qualified and selected, it can and often does take several months or more before the customer commences volume production of systems that incorporate our products. Despite these uncertainties, we devote substantial resources, including design, engineering, sales, marketing and management efforts, to qualify our products with customers in anticipation of sales. If we are unsuccessful or delayed in qualifying any of our products with a customer, sales of those products may be precluded or delayed, which may impede our growth and harm our business.

Our costs may increase substantially if our third-party manufacturing contractors do not achieve satisfactory product yields or quality.

The fabrication process is extremely complicated and small changes in design, specifications or materials can result in material decreases in product yields or even the suspension of production. From time to time, the third-party foundries that we contract to manufacture our products may experience manufacturing defects and reduced manufacturing yields related to errors or problems in their manufacturing processes or the interrelationship of their processes with our designs. In some cases, our third-party foundries may not be able to detect these defects early in the fabrication process or determine the cause of such defects in a timely manner.

Generally, in pricing our products, we assume that manufacturing yields will continue to improve, even as the complexity of our products increases. Once our products are initially qualified with our third-party foundries, minimum acceptable yields are established. We are responsible for the costs of the units if the actual yield is above the minimum. If actual yields are below the minimum we are not required to purchase the units. Typically, minimum acceptable yields

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for our new products are generally lower at first and gradually improve as we achieve full production. Unacceptably low product yields or other product manufacturing problems could substantially increase overall production time and costs and adversely impact our operating results. Product yield losses will increase our costs and reduce our gross margin. In addition to significantly harming our results of operations and cash flow, poor yields may delay shipment of our products and harm our relationships with existing and potential customers.

The complexity of our products may lead to errors, defects and bugs, which could negatively impact our reputation with customers and result in liability.

Products as complex as ours may contain errors, defects and bugs when first introduced to customers or as new versions are released. Our products have in the past experienced such errors, defects and bugs. Delivery of products with production defects or reliability, quality or compatibility problems could significantly delay or hinder market acceptance of the products or result in a costly recall and could damage our reputation and adversely affect our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers. Errors, defects or bugs could cause problems with the functionality of our products, resulting in interruptions, delays or cessation of sales of these products to our customers. We may also be required to make significant expenditures of capital and resources to resolve such problems. We cannot assure you that problems will not be found in new products, both before and after commencement of commercial production, despite testing by us, our suppliers or our customers. Any such problems could result in:

·

delays in development, manufacture and roll-out of new products;

·

additional development costs;

·

loss of, or delays in, market acceptance;

·

diversion of technical and other resources from our other development efforts;

·

claims for damages by our customers or others against us; and

·

loss of credibility with our current and prospective customers.

Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If our IoT solutions become subject to cyber-attacks, or if public perception is that they are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, our reputation and business would suffer.

We have designed our IoT products, including our outdoor lighting solutions products acquired from Echelon, to interoperate with other third-party products and systems.  Although we attempt to safeguard our products and solutions from cybersecurity threats, the potential for cybersecurity attacks and other incidents continues to evolve in scope and frequency, and our potential vulnerability to those attacks may depend on factors beyond our control, such as the security of products with which our products interoperate.

Advances in and expanding availability of technical tools to enable cybersecurity attacks, and increasing sophistication of the threats, deepen the risk of potential security incidents.  This risk expands as new protocols and devices are implemented into our products and systems, and as customer requirements evolve.  Should our products, or the combination of our products into third party systems, fail to prevent or be unable to withstand any such threats or cyber-attacks, or if our partners or customers fail to safeguard applicable technologies, products or the systems with adequate security policies and measures or otherwise, our business and reputation may be harmed.

We have attempted to design certain of our products to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification or other activities related to those products and the systems into which the products are intended to be placed. Despite our security measures, our products or systems may be subject to unauthorized break ins, viruses, disruptions, high-jacking, cyber terrorism, misuse, tampering, other unauthorized access or modification, or unauthorized access to, or acquisition, loss, or alteration of, data. Should our products fail to perform, be unable to withstand a cyber-attack, or otherwise suffer a security incident, or be perceived to have suffered any kind of security

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vulnerability or cyber incidents, we could face legal liability, and encounter material adverse financial and reputational harm.

In addition, we believe that there could be incidents of security breaches in the future which could receive significant publicity and visibility. Any such publicity or visibility, regardless of whether the problem is due or related to the performance or security measures of our products or systems, could have a negative effect on public confidence, or cause a perception that our solutions are or could be subject to similar attacks or breaches, and our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. Such an event could also result in a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock, independent of the direct effects on our business.

Furthermore, because some of the information collected by some of our solutions is or may be considered personal data or otherwise may be alleged to be confidential or proprietary to our customers or third parties, a cyber-attack or other data security incident, including any unauthorized access to, loss of, or acquisition of data collected or maintained by our solutions, could violate, or be alleged to violate, applicable privacy, consumer or information security laws, regulations or other obligations. Any of the foregoing could cause us to face regulatory investigations and enforcement actions, private litigation, and other financial or legal liability, as well as harm to our reputation and business, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance.

We are subject to governmental regulation and other legal obligations, particularly related to privacy, data protection and information security, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Personal privacy, data protection and information security are significant issues in the United States and the other jurisdictions where we offer our products and services. The regulatory framework for privacy and security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Our handling of data is subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including regulation by various government agencies and various state, local and foreign bodies and agencies.

The United States federal and various state and foreign governments have adopted or proposed limitations on the collection, distribution, use and storage of personal information of individuals, including end-customers and employees. In the United States, the FTC and many state attorneys general are applying federal and state consumer protection laws to the online collection, use and dissemination of data. Additionally, many foreign countries and governmental bodies, including in Australia, the European Union, India, Japan and numerous other jurisdictions in which we operate or conduct our business, have laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of personal information obtained from their residents or by businesses operating within their jurisdiction. These laws and regulations often are more restrictive than those in the United States. Such laws and regulations may require companies to implement new privacy and security policies, permit individuals to access, correct and delete personal information stored or maintained by such companies, inform individuals of security breaches that affect their personal information, and, in some cases, obtain individuals’ consent to use personal information for certain purposes.

We also expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions, and we cannot yet determine the impact of such future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business. For example, in June 2018, California passed the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) which provides new data privacy rights for consumers and new operational requirements for companies effective in 2020. Additionally, we expect that existing laws, regulations and standards may be interpreted differently in the future. There remains significant uncertainty surrounding the regulatory framework for the future of personal data transfers from the European Union to the United States with regulations such as the recently adopted General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which imposes more stringent EU data protection requirements, provides an enforcement authority, and imposes large penalties for noncompliance. Future laws, regulations, standards and other obligations, including the adoption of the GDPR, as well as changes in the interpretation of existing laws, regulations, standards and other obligations could impair our

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ability to collect, use or disclose information relating to individuals, which could decrease demand for our products, require us to restrict our business operations, increase our costs and impair our ability to maintain and grow our customer base and increase our revenue.

Although we are working to comply with those federal, state and foreign laws and regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations and other legal obligations that apply to us, those laws, regulations, standards and obligations are evolving and may be modified, interpreted and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another, and may conflict with one another, other requirements or legal obligations, our practices or the features of our products. As such, we cannot assure ongoing compliance with all such laws or regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations and other legal obligations. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with federal, state or foreign laws or regulations, industry standards, contractual obligations or other legal obligations, or any actual or suspected security incident, whether or not resulting in unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of personal information or other data, may result in governmental enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity and could cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies, industry standards, contractual obligations or other legal obligations could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales, and adversely affect our business and operating results.

We may experience difficulties in transitioning to new wafer fabrication process technologies or in achieving higher levels of design integration, which may result in reduced manufacturing yields, delays in product deliveries and increased expenses.

We aim to use the most advanced manufacturing process technology appropriate for our solutions that is available from our third-party foundries. As a result, we periodically evaluate the benefits of migrating our solutions to other technologies in order to improve performance and reduce costs. These ongoing efforts require us from time to time to modify the manufacturing processes for our products and to redesign some products, which in turn may result in delays in product deliveries. We may face difficulties, delays and increased expense as we transition our products to new processes, and potentially to new foundries. We will depend on our third-party foundries as we transition to new processes. We cannot assure you that our third-party foundries will be able to effectively manage such transitions or that we will be able to maintain our relationship with our third-party foundries or develop relationships with new third-party foundries. If we or any of our third-party foundries experience significant delays in transitioning to new processes or fail to efficiently implement transitions, we could experience reduced manufacturing yields, delays in product deliveries and increased expenses, any of which could harm our relationships with our customers and our operating results.

As smaller line width geometry manufacturing processes become more prevalent, we intend to move our future products to increasingly smaller geometries in order to reduce costs while integrating greater levels of functionality into our products. This transition will require us and our third-party foundries to migrate to new designs and manufacturing processes for smaller geometry products. We may not be able to achieve smaller geometries with higher levels of design integration or to deliver new integrated products on a timely basis. We periodically evaluate the benefits, on a product-by-product basis, of migrating to smaller geometry process technologies to reduce our costs and increase performance. We are dependent on our relationships with our third-party foundries to transition to smaller geometry processes successfully. We cannot assure you that our third-party foundries will be able to effectively manage any such transition. If we or our third-party foundries experience significant delays in any such transition or fail to implement a transition, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially harmed.

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If we fail to retain qualified finance personnel and strengthen our financial reporting systems and infrastructure, we may not be able to timely and accurately report our financial results or comply with the requirements of being a public company, including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and SEC reporting requirements.

Our ability to timely and accurately report our financial results or comply with the requirements of being a public company depends on our maintaining adequate numbers of accounting and finance staff with technical accounting, SEC reporting and Sarbanes-Oxley Act compliance expertise. Any inability to recruit or retain qualified accounting and finance staff would have an adverse impact on our ability to accurately and timely prepare our consolidated financial statements. We may be unable to hire qualified professionals with requisite technical and public company experience when and as needed. In addition, new employees will require time and training to learn our business and operating processes and procedures. If our finance and accounting organization is unable for any reason to respond adequately to the increased demands from being a public company, the quality and timeliness of our financial reporting may suffer, which could result in the identification of material weaknesses in our internal controls. Any consequences resulting from inaccuracies or delays in our reported financial statements could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

If we fail to strengthen our financial reporting systems, infrastructure and internal control over financial reporting to meet the demands placed upon us as a public company, including the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may be unable to report our financial results timely and accurately and prevent fraud. We expect to incur significant expense and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with Section 404.

A breach of our security systems may damage our reputation and adversely affect our business.

Our security systems are designed to protect our customers’, suppliers’ and employees’ confidential information, as well as maintain the physical security of our facilities. We also rely on a number of third-party “cloud-based” service providers of corporate infrastructure services relating to, among other things, human resources, electronic communication services and some finance functions, and we are, of necessity, dependent on the security systems of these providers. Any security breaches or other unauthorized access by third parties to the systems of our cloud-based service providers or the existence of computer viruses in their data or software could expose us to a risk of information loss and misappropriation of confidential information. Accidental or willful security breaches or other unauthorized access by third parties to our information systems or facilities, or the existence of computer viruses in our data or software, could expose us to a risk of information loss and misappropriation of proprietary and confidential information belonging to us, our customers or our suppliers. Any theft or misuse of this information could result in, among other things, unfavorable publicity, damage to our reputation, difficulty in marketing our products, allegations by our customers that we have not performed our contractual obligations, litigation by affected parties and possible financial obligations for liabilities and damages related to the theft or misuse of this information, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, our reputation, and our relationships with our customers and partners. Since the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and are often not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.

Failure to protect our intellectual property could substantially harm our business.

Our success and ability to compete depend in part upon our ability to protect our intellectual property. We rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, mask work protection, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and know-how, in the United States and other jurisdictions. The steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate, particularly in foreign jurisdictions such as China. Any patents we hold may not adequately protect our intellectual property rights or our products against competitors, and third parties may challenge the scope, validity or enforceability of our issued patents. In addition, other parties may independently develop similar or competing technologies designed around any patents or patent applications that we hold. Some of our products and technologies are not covered by any patent or patent application, as we do not believe patent protection of these products

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and technologies is critical to our business strategy at this time. A failure to timely seek patent protection on products or technologies generally precludes us from seeking future patent protection on these products or technologies.

In addition to patents, we also rely on contractual protections with our customers, suppliers, distributors, employees and consultants, and we implement security measures designed to protect our trade secrets and know-how. However, we cannot assure you that these contractual protections and security measures will not be breached, that we will have adequate remedies for any such breach or that our customers, suppliers, distributors, employees or consultants will not assert rights to intellectual property or damages arising out of such contracts.

We may initiate claims against third parties to protect our intellectual property rights if we are unable to resolve matters satisfactorily through negotiation. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management. It could also result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property, as an adverse decision could limit our ability to assert our intellectual property rights, limit the value of our technology or otherwise negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, any enforcement of our patents or other intellectual property may provoke third parties to assert counterclaims against us. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could materially harm our business.

We may face claims of intellectual property infringement, which could be time-consuming, costly to defend or settle, result in the loss of significant rights, harm our relationships with our customers and distributors, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The industries in which we operate are characterized by companies that hold patents and other intellectual property rights and that vigorously pursue, protect and enforce intellectual property rights. These companies include patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patents may provide little or no deterrence. From time to time, third parties may assert against us and our customers’ patent and other intellectual property rights to technologies that are important to our business.

Claims that our products, processes or technology infringe third-party intellectual property rights, regardless of their merit or resolution, could be costly to defend or settle and could divert the efforts and attention of our management and technical personnel. We may also be obligated to indemnify our customers or business partners in connection with any such litigation, which could result in increased costs. Infringement claims also could harm our relationships with our customers or distributors and might deter future customers from doing business with us. If any such proceedings result in an adverse outcome, we could be required to:

·

cease the manufacture, use or sale of the infringing products, processes or technology;

·

pay substantial damages for infringement;

·

expend significant resources to develop non-infringing products, processes or technology, which may not be successful;

·

license technology from the third-party claiming infringement, which license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all;

·

cross-license our technology to a competitor to resolve an infringement claim, which could weaken our ability to compete with that competitor; or

·

pay substantial damages to our customers to discontinue their use of or to replace infringing technology sold to them with non-infringing technology, if available.

Any of the foregoing results could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, our exposure to the foregoing risks may also be increased as a result of acquisitions of other companies or technologies. For example, we may have a lower level of visibility into the development process with respect to intellectual property or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks with respect to the acquired

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company or technology. In addition, third parties may make infringement and similar or related claims after we have acquired technology that had not been asserted prior to the acquisition.

We rely upon third-party licensed technology to develop our products. If licenses of third-party technology are inadequate, our ability to develop and commercialize our products or product enhancements could be negatively impacted.

Our products incorporate technology licensed from third parties. In connection with our acquisition of certain flash memory assets from Atmel Corporation in 2012, we obtained a perpetual license to Atmel’s flash memory technology. In addition, a component of our CBRAM technology is licensed from Axon Technology Corp. While we believe these licenses enable us to develop our products and pursue our current product strategies, these licenses may not provide us with the benefits we expect from them. From time to time, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop our products or product enhancements. However, these third-party licenses may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our inability to obtain third-party licenses necessary to develop products and product enhancements could require us to obtain substitute technology at a greater cost or of lower quality or performance standards or delay product development. Any of these results may limit our ability to develop new products, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have expanded in the past and expect to continue to expand in the future through acquisitions of, or investments in, other companies, each of which may divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to stockholders or use resources that are necessary to operate our business.

In the past, we have grown our business through acquisitions and we expect to continue to evaluate and enter into discussions regarding potential strategic transactions that we believe could complement or expand our business, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. These transactions could be material to our financial condition and results of operations. The process of integrating businesses and technology can create unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures as could the integration of any future acquisitions. Such transactions could create risks for us, including:

·

difficulties in assimilating acquired personnel, operations and technologies or realizing synergies expected in connection with an acquisition, particularly with acquisitions of companies with large and widespread operations, complex products or that operate in markets in which we historically have had limited experience;

·

unanticipated costs or liabilities, including possible litigation, associated with the acquisition;

·

incurrence of acquisition-related costs;

·

diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;

·

use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and

·

use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate an acquisition.

Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our past or future acquisitions and investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions or investments, cause us to incur unanticipated liabilities and harm our business generally. Future acquisitions could also result in the use of substantial amounts of our cash and cash equivalents, dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, amortization expenses or the write-off of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition. Also, the anticipated benefits of any acquisitions may not materialize, may be less beneficial, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. If we do not receive the benefits anticipated from these acquisitions and investments, or if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be adversely affected and our stock price could decline.

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In our embedded systems business, we are increasingly dependent on third-party developers.

We are increasingly reliant on various third parties for the development of software used in our embedded systems products. There is a risk that the software provided by these third parties could contain errors or defects that could adversely impact the quality of our products. In addition, these third parties may use open source or other code that contains security flaws, which may cause our products to be more prone to hacking or other security incidents. We may also be negatively impacted by employee turnover or other challenges that these third-party developers face in their own businesses. Third parties may also choose not to develop software for our products if we do not have adequate market share or sufficient perception of future success. The materialization of any of these risks would impact our ability to deliver quality products on a timely basis, which could adversely impact our reputation and brand and harm our business and results of operations.

In addition, many of these third-party developers are located in markets that are subject to political risk, intellectual property misappropriation, corruption, infrastructure problems and natural disasters, in addition to country specific privacy and data security risks, given current legal and regulatory environments. The failure of these third parties to meet their obligations and adequately deploy business continuity plans in the event of a crisis and/or the development of significant disagreements, natural or man-made disasters or other factors that materially disrupt our ongoing relationship with these developers could negatively affect our operations.

Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain key employees, and our failure to do so could harm our ability to grow our business and execute our business strategies.

Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain our key employees, including our management team and experienced engineers. Competition for personnel is intense, and the availability of suitable and qualified candidates is limited. We compete to attract and retain qualified research and development personnel with other semiconductor companies, universities and research institutions, particularly those in the San Francisco Bay Area where our headquarters is located. The members of our management and key employees are at-will employees. If we lose the services of any key senior management member or employee, we may not be able to locate suitable or qualified replacements, and may incur additional expenses to recruit and train new personnel, which could severely impact our business and prospects. The loss of the services of one or more of our key employees, especially our key engineers, or our inability to attract and retain qualified engineers, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to effectively manage our growth, and we may need to incur significant expenditures to address the additional operational and control requirements of our growth, either of which could harm our business and operating results.

We expect to increase headcount and the overall size of our operations to support our growth. To effectively manage our growth, we must continue to expand our operational, engineering and financial systems, procedures and controls and to improve our accounting and other internal management systems. This may require substantial managerial and financial resources, and our efforts in this regard may not be successful. Our current systems, procedures and controls may not be adequate to support our future operations. If we fail to adequately manage our growth, or to improve our operational, financial and management information systems, or fail to effectively motivate or manage our new and future employees, the quality of our products and the management of our operations could suffer, which could adversely affect our operating results.

We have operations outside of the United States and intend to expand our international operations, which exposes us to significant risks.

With the acquisitions of S3 Semiconductors and Echelon, we expanded our global footprint beyond the limited operations we once had in Europe and Asia. We intend to expand our operations in Asia and, the acquisitions

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significantly expand our global operations. The success of our business depends, in large part, on our ability to operate successfully from geographically disparate locations and to further expand our international operations and sales. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and subjects us to regulatory, economic and political risks that are different from those we face in the United States. We cannot be sure that further international expansion will be successful. In addition, we face risks in doing business internationally that could expose us to reduced demand for our products, lower prices for our products or other adverse effects on our operating results. Among the risks we believe are most likely to affect us are:

·

difficulties, inefficiencies and costs associated with staffing and managing foreign operations;

·

longer and more difficult customer qualification and credit checks;

·

greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;

·

the need for various local approvals to operate in some countries;

·

difficulties in entering some foreign markets without larger-scale local operations;

·

compliance with local laws and regulations in the U.S. and various foreign jurisdictions;

·

unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, including the elimination of tax holidays;

·

reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

·

adverse tax consequences as a result of repatriating cash generated from foreign operations to the United States;

·

adverse tax consequences, including potential additional tax exposure if we are deemed to have established a permanent establishment outside of the United States;

·

the effect of U.S. trade policy, including the use of tariffs, and various foreign jurisdictions responses to that trade policy;

·

adverse tax consequences, including potential additional tax costs, resulting from the new tax legislation signed into law on December 22, 2017, that imposes a minimum domestic tax on the earnings of foreign subsidiaries;

·

the effectiveness of our policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 and similar regulations;

·

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could increase the prices of our products to customers outside of the United States, increase the expenses of our international operations by reducing the purchasing power of the U.S. dollar and expose us to foreign currency exchange rate risk if, in the future, we denominate our international sales in currencies other than the U.S. dollar;

·

new and different sources of competition; and

·

political and economic instability, and terrorism.

Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our operations and reduce our revenue.

Because our business is highly dependent on growth in the electronics manufacturing supply chain in China, any slowdown in this growth could adversely affect our business and operating results.

Our business is highly dependent upon the economy and the business environment in China. In particular, our growth strategy is based upon the assumption that demand in China for devices that use semiconductors will continue to grow. Therefore, any slowdown in the growth of consumer demand in China for products that use semiconductors, such as computers, mobile phones or other consumer electronics, could have a serious adverse effect on our business. In addition, our business plan assumes that an increasing number of non-Chinese integrated device manufacturers, or IDMs, fabless semiconductor companies and systems companies will establish operations in China. Any decline in the

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rate of migration to China of semiconductor design companies or companies that require semiconductors as components for their products could adversely affect our business and operating results.

In order to comply with environmental laws and regulations, we may need to modify our activities or incur substantial costs, and if we fail to comply with environmental regulations we could be subject to substantial fines or be required to have our suppliers alter their processes.

The semiconductor industry is subject to a variety of international, federal, state and local governmental regulations directed at preventing or mitigating environmental harm, as well as to the storage, discharge, handling, generation, disposal and labeling of toxic or other hazardous substances. Failure to comply with environmental regulations could subject us to civil or criminal sanctions and property damage or personal injury claims. Compliance with current or future environmental laws and regulations could restrict our ability to expand our business or require us to modify processes or incur other substantial expenses which could harm our business. In response to environmental concerns, some customers and government agencies impose requirements for the elimination of hazardous substances, such as lead (which is widely used in soldering connections in the process of semiconductor packaging and assembly), from electronic equipment. For example, the European Union, or EU, adopted its Restriction on Hazardous Substance Directive which prohibits, with specified exceptions, the sale in the EU market of new electrical and electronic equipment containing more than agreed levels of lead or other hazardous materials and China has enacted similar regulations. Environmental laws and regulations such as these could become more stringent over time, causing a need to redesign technologies, imposing greater compliance costs and increasing risks and penalties associated with violations, which could seriously harm our business.

The issuance of new accounting standards or future interpretations of existing accounting standards could adversely affect our operating results.

We prepare our financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP. A change in those principles could have a significant effect on our reported results and might affect our reporting of transactions completed before a change is announced. U.S. GAAP is issued and subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the SEC and various other bodies formed to promulgate and interpret accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change. The issuance of new accounting standards or future interpretations of existing accounting standards, or changes in our business practices or estimates, could result in future changes in our revenue recognition or other accounting policies that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Some of our facilities and the facilities of our suppliers are located near known earthquake fault zones, and the occurrence of an earthquake or other catastrophic disaster could damage our facilities, which could cause us to curtail our operations.

Our principal offices, and our contract manufacturers’ and suppliers’ facilities in Asia, are located near known earthquake fault zones and, therefore, are vulnerable to damage from earthquakes. We are also vulnerable to damage from other types of disasters, such as power loss, fire, floods and similar events. If any such disaster were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired. In addition, we may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other similar significant business interruptions. Any significant losses that are not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business and financial condition.

Our substantial level of indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition.

We have a substantial amount of indebtedness, which will require significant interest payments. After giving effect to the term loan we received in May 2018, we have approximately $34.7 million aggregate principal amount of

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indebtedness outstanding as of December 31, 2018.  Our substantial level of indebtedness could have important consequences, including the following:

·

we must use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to pay interest and principal on the term loan, which will reduce funds available to us for other purposes such as working capital, capital expenditures, other general corporate purposes and potential acquisitions;

·

our ability to refinance such indebtedness or to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or general corporate purposes may be impaired;

·

we will be exposed to fluctuations in interest rates;

·

our leverage may be greater than that of some of our competitors, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage and reduce our flexibility in responding to current and changing industry and financial market conditions;

·

we may be more vulnerable to the current economic downturn and adverse developments in our business;

·

 we may be unable to comply with financial and other restrictive covenants in our debt agreements, which could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, may result in acceleration of certain of our debt and would have an adverse effect on our business and prospects and could force us into bankruptcy or liquidation; and

·

in the event of the insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding up of our business, if there are not sufficient assets remaining to pay all creditors, then all or a portion of the amounts due on the notes then outstanding would remain unpaid.

We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our existing credit facility and the terms of any of our other indebtedness.  For example, we may incur additional debt to fund our business and strategic initiatives, and may utilize additional debt to fund a portion of the purchase price for the Echelon acquisition.  If we incur additional debt and other obligations, the risks associated with our substantial leverage and the ability to service such debt would increase.

Our ability to meet expenses, to remain in compliance with our covenants under our debt arrangements and to make future principal and interest payments in respect of our debt arrangements depends on, among other things, our operating performance, competitive developments and financial market conditions, all of which are significantly affected by financial, business, economic and other factors. We are not able to control many of these factors. Accordingly, our cash flow may not be sufficient to allow us to pay principal and interest on our debt and meet our other obligations.

 

We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.

We have funded our operations since inception through equity financings, our borrowing arrangements, and our public offerings in October 2015, June 2017, and July 2018. We have incurred net losses and negative cash flows from operating activities since our inception, and we expect we will continue to incur operating and net losses and negative cash flows from operations for the foreseeable future. We do not know when or if our operations will generate sufficient cash to fund our ongoing operations. In the future, we may require additional capital to fund our ongoing operations, respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions or unforeseen circumstances and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities, but we may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing or raise additional capital in the public market on favorable terms or at all.

Our current credit facility limits our ability to incur indebtedness, and these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions subject to the consent of our lender. Any additional debt financing obtained by us in the future could also involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions.

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If we raise additional funds through issuances of equity, convertible debt securities or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution in their percentage ownership of our company, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.

Provisions of our debt agreements may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.

Borrowings under our new $35 million credit facility are collateralized by substantially all of our assets excluding our intellectual property. Our credit facility restricts our ability to, among other things:

·

dispose of or sell assets;

·

consolidate or merge with other entities;

·

incur additional indebtedness;

·

create liens on our assets;

·

pay dividends;

·

make investments;

·

enter into transactions with affiliates; and

·

redeem subordinated indebtedness.

These restrictions are subject to certain exceptions. In addition, our credit facility requires us to comply with certain financial covenants. The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in the credit facility, as well as any future financing agreements that we may enter into, may restrict our ability to finance our operations, engage in business activities or expand or fully pursue our business strategies. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, and we may not be able to meet those covenants. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under the credit facility which could cause, among other things (unless such default is waived by the lender), all or a portion of the outstanding indebtedness thereunder to become immediately due and payable and subject to an increase by 2% of the interest rate charged during the period of the unremedied breach. In addition, the lender would be able to sell or lease our assets in satisfaction of our outstanding indebtedness.

Our ability to use net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

In general, under Section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses, or NOLs, to offset future taxable income, and tax credits to offset tax. In addition, although we do not expect to undergo an ownership change, we may experience an ownership change in the future, and our ability to utilize our NOLs and tax credits could be further limited by Section 382 of the Code. Future changes in our stock ownership, many of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. Our net operating losses and tax credits could also be impaired under state laws. As a result, we might not be able to utilize a material portion of our state NOLs and tax credits.

If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock may be negatively affected.

As a public company, we are required to maintain internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. If and when we no longer meet the definition of an “emerging growth company” as defined by the JOBS Act, we would be required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and, beginning with our annual report for the applicable fiscal year, provide a management report on our internal control over financial reporting, which must be

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attested to by our independent registered public accounting firm. If we have one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. We are in the process of designing and implementing our internal control over financial reporting required to comply with this obligation, which process will be time consuming, costly and complicated. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, if we are unable to determine that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by The Nasdaq Stock Market, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

Regulations related to “conflict minerals” may force us to incur additional expenses, may make our supply chain more complex and may result in damage to our reputation with customers.

Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC has adopted requirements for companies that use certain minerals and metals, known as conflict minerals, in their products, whether or not these products are manufactured by third parties. These requirements will require companies to diligence, disclose and report whether or not such minerals originate from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability and pricing of minerals used in the manufacture of our products, and affect our costs and relationships with customers, distributors and suppliers as we must obtain additional information from them to ensure our compliance with the disclosure requirement. In addition, we will incur additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to determining the source of any of the relevant minerals and metals used in our products. Since our supply chain is complex, we may not be able to sufficiently verify the origins for these minerals and metals used in our products through the due diligence procedures that we implement, which may harm our reputation. In such event, we may also face difficulties in satisfying customers who require that all of the components of our products are certified as conflict mineral free and these customers may discontinue, or materially reduce, purchases of our products, which could result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our financial condition may be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock has been and will likely continue to be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The market price of our common stock has been, and will likely continue to be, volatile. Since shares of our common stock were sold in our initial public offering in October 2015 at a price of $5.00 per share, our stock price has fluctuated significantly. In addition to the factors discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K, the market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

·

overall performance of the equity markets in general, in our industry or in the markets we address;

·

our operating performance and the performance of other similar companies;

·

changes in the estimates of our results of operations that we provide to the public, our failure to meet these projected results or changes in recommendations by securities analysts that elect to follow our common stock;

·

announcements of technological innovations, new products or enhancements to products, acquisitions, strategic alliances or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;

·

announcements of new business partners, or the termination of existing business partner arrangements or changes to our relationships with such business partners;

·

recruitment or departure of key personnel;

·

announcements of litigation or claims against us;

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·

changes in legal requirements relating to our business;

·

the economy as a whole, market conditions in our industry, and the industries of our customers and end customers;

·

trading activity by our principal stockholders;

·

the expiration of contractual lock-up or market standoff agreements; and

·

sales of shares of our common stock by us or our stockholders.

In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many technology companies. Stock prices of many technology companies have fluctuated in a manner unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and adversely affect our business.

lf securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they downgrade our stock, the price of our stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts. If few analysts cover our company, the price and trading volume of our stock could suffer. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock, or publish unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline rapidly. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price to decline.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared nor paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends on our capital stock is restricted by the terms of our current credit facility and is likely to be restricted by any future debt financing arrangement. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to increases in the price of our common stock, if any.

Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws or Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management.

Delaware corporate law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our board of directors that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. Among other things, these provisions:

·

establish a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board are elected at one time;

·

provide that directors may be removed only “for cause” and only with the approval of stockholders representing 66 2/3 percent of our outstanding common stock;

·

require super-majority voting to amend some provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws;

·

authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board could issue to increase the number of outstanding shares and to discourage a takeover attempt;

·

eliminate the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;

·

prohibit stockholder action by written consent, which means that all stockholder actions will be required to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;

·

provide that our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws; and

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·

establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our management could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2.       PROPERTIES

We lease approximately 34,000 square feet in Santa Clara, California for our corporate headquarters, pursuant to a noncancelable lease, which expires in July 2023. We lease approximately 8,437 square feet in Dublin, Ireland for our operations, pursuant to a noncancelable lease, which expires in November 2033. As part of our acquisition of S3 Semiconductors, we also acquired design centers with leased properties in Cork, Ireland, Lisbon, Portugal and Prague, Czech Republic. We also acquired a 31,778 square foot leased facility in Santa Clara, California as part of the Echelon acquisition. The lease terminates in July 2019 and will not be renewed. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current needs, and we intend to add or change facilities as needs require. We believe that, if required, suitable additional or substitute space would be available to accommodate expansion of our operations.

ITEM 3.       LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are not currently a party to any legal proceedings which, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. We may, from time to time, become involved in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business and as our business grows, we may become a party to an increasing number of legal proceedings.

ITEM 4.       MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5.       MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELIATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information for Common Stock

Our common stock has been listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol “IOTS” since October 27, 2015, the date of our initial public offering. Prior to our initial public offering, there was no public market for our common stock.

As of February 27, 2019, there were 33 registered stockholders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers or other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by the record holders.

The information required concerning the sale of our equity securities will be included in an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated by reference from our Proxy Statement to be filed with the SEC for our 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors. In addition, the terms of our $35.0 million credit agreement currently prohibits us from paying dividends.

Stock Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Adesto under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act.

The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock with the cumulative total return on the Nasdaq Composite Index and the PHLX Semiconductor Index for the period from October 27, 2015 (the date our common stock commenced trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market) to December 31, 2018, the end of our

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last fiscal year. The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of future stock price performance of our common stock.

Picture 1

Recent Sale of Unregistered Securities and Use of Proceeds

None.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

None.

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ITEM 6.       SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

We have derived the selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.You should read the following selected consolidated financial data below in conjunction with the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. The selected consolidated financial data in this section are not intended to replace our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, and are qualified in their entirety by the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any period in the future.

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

    

2015

    

2014

 

 

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

Revenue, net

 

$

83,490

 

$

56,112

 

$

43,968

 

$

43,259

 

$

41,465

Cost of revenue

 

 

47,429

 

 

28,637

 

 

22,618

 

 

24,775

 

 

25,532

Gross profit

 

 

36,061

 

 

27,475

 

 

21,350

 

 

18,484

 

 

15,933

Operating expenses:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Research and development

 

 

20,273

 

 

13,623

 

 

15,412

 

 

12,311

 

 

13,926

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

22,592

 

 

17,461

 

 

16,968

 

 

11,571

 

 

8,815

Amortization of intangible assets

 

 

3,871

 

 

1,222

 

 

1,235

 

 

1,236

 

 

1,236

Acquisition related expenses

 

 

7,029

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Impairment and other charges

 

 

2,680

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Gain from settlement with former foundry supplier

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(1,962)

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Total operating expenses

 

 

56,445

 

 

32,306

 

 

31,653

 

 

25,118

 

 

23,977

Loss from operations

 

 

(20,384)

 

 

(4,831)

 

 

(10,303)

 

 

(6,634)

 

 

(8,044)

Other income (expense):

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Interest expense, net

 

 

(3,791)

 

 

(753)

 

 

(1,275)

 

 

(1,115)

 

 

(864)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

2,656

 

 

(3)

 

 

(50)

 

 

(695)

 

 

114

Total other (expense), net

 

 

(1,135)

 

 

(756)

 

 

(1,325)

 

 

(1,810)

 

 

(750)

Loss before provision for (benefit from) for income taxes

 

 

(21,519)

 

 

(5,587)

 

 

(11,628)

 

 

(8,444)

 

 

(8,794)

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

 

(79)

 

 

101

 

 

(16)

 

 

(61)

 

 

140

Net loss

 

$

(21,440)

 

$

(5,688)

 

$

(11,612)

 

$

(8,383)

 

$

(8,934)

Net loss per share:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Basic and diluted

 

$

(0.85)

 

$

(0.31)

 

$

(0.77)

 

$

(2.79)

 

$

(16.48)

Weighted average number of shares used in computing net loss per share:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Basic and diluted

 

 

25,144,562

 

 

18,591,308

 

 

15,085,973

 

 

3,007,929

 

 

542,248

 

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Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

 

2015

 

2014

 

 

(in thousands)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

$

9,088

 

$

30,078

 

$

19,719

 

$

23,089

 

$

5,972

Total assets

 

 

137,188

 

 

60,812

 

 

46,183

 

 

49,938

 

 

31,447

Current liabilities

 

 

40,766

 

 

14,474

 

 

15,408

 

 

17,644

 

 

21,634

Debt

 

 

29,559

 

 

13,334

 

 

18,048

 

 

13,420

 

 

10,749

Preferred stock warrant liability

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

122

Convertible preferred stock

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

78,467

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)

 

 

62,742

 

 

32,950

 

 

16,365

 

 

24,479

 

 

(70,252)

 

In May 2018, we entered into a $35.0 million term loan with Tennenbaum Capital Partners, LLC (“Tennenbaum”). As of December 31, 2018, we had gross borrowings of $34.7 million outstanding under our term loan.

ITEM 7.       MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes that are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current plans, expectations and beliefs that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and in other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

Overview

We are a leading provider of innovative, application-specific semiconductors and embedded systems that provide the key building blocks of Internet of Things (IotT) edge devices operating on networks worldwide. Our broad portfolio of semiconductor and embedded technologies are optimized for connected IoT devices used in industrial, consumer, communications and medical applications. Through expert design, systems expertise and proprietary intellectual property, we enable our customers to differentiate their systems where it matters most for IoT: longer battery life, greater reliability, integrated intelligence and lower cost. Through our solutions, we enable seamless access to data and control of ‘things’ in the connected world.

Our revenue is primarily derived from the sale of our NVM products, specifically our serial flash memory products, which represented substantially all of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. In recent years, we have invested in developing and commercializing new flash memory products that are well suited for low-power, high-growth applications. In 2013, we introduced the first of our next-generation DataFlash and Fusion Serial Flash products. Revenue from our next-generation NVM products were $64.1 million and $55.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. With the acquisition of S3 Semiconductors, in May 2018, we expanded our product offering and began selling analog, mixed-signal and radio frequency ASICs and IP blocks, and managing the supply of high-quality devices to our customers.  We acquired 100% of the issued capital of Echelon Corporation on September 14, 2018. During the year ended December 31, 2018, S3 Semiconductors and Echelon revenues were approximately $19.3 million, following their respective acquisitions.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, our products were sold to more than 2,000 end customers. In general, we work directly with our customers to have our NVM devices designed into and qualified for their products. Although we maintain direct sales, support and development relationships with our customers, once our products are designed into a customer’s product, we sell a majority of our products to those customers through distributors. We generated 65%,

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74% and 71% of our revenue from distributors during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Sales to three distributors generated approximately 31%, 38% and 35% of our revenue during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Additionally, we derived approximately 72%, 79% and 86% of our revenue internationally during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, the majority of which was recognized in the Asia Pacific, or APAC, region. Revenue by geography is recognized based on the region to which our products are sold, and not to where the end products are shipped.

We employ a fabless manufacturing strategy and use market-leading suppliers for all phases of the manufacturing process, including wafer fabrication, assembly, testing and packaging. This strategy significantly reduces the capital investment that would otherwise be required to operate manufacturing facilities of our own.

Factors Affecting Our Performance

Product adoption in new markets and applications. We optimize our products to meet the technical requirements of the emerging IoT market. The growth in the IoT market is dependent on many factors, most of which are outside of our control. Should the IoT market not develop or develop more slowly, our financial results could be adversely affected.

Ability to attract and retain customers that make large orders. In 2018, our products were sold to more than 2,000 end customers, of which approximately 32 generated more than half our revenue. One end customer accounted for 10% or more of our revenue in 2016. No end customer accounted for 10% or more of our revenue in 2017 or 2018. While we expect the composition of our customers to change over time, especially given our recent acquisitions, our business and operating results will depend on our ability to continually target new and retain existing customers that place large orders, particularly those in growth markets which are less dependent on macroeconomic conditions.

Design wins with new and existing customers. We believe our solutions significantly improve the performance and potentially lower the system cost of our customers’ designs, particularly if we are part of the early design phase. Accordingly, we work closely with our customers and targeted prospects to understand their product roadmaps and strategies. We consider design wins to be critical to our future success. We define a design win as the successful completion of the evaluation stage, where a customer has tested our product, verified that our product meets its requirements and qualified our NVM device for their products. The number of our design wins has grown from 296 in 2016 to 417 in 2017 and to 570 in 2018. The revenue that we generate, if any, from each design win can vary significantly. Our long-term sales expectations are based on forecasts from customers, internal estimates of customer demand factoring in expected time to market for end customer products incorporating our solutions and associated revenue potential and internal estimates of overall demand based on historical trends.

Pricing, product cost and gross margins of our products. Our gross margin has been and will continue to be affected by a variety of factors, including the timing of changes in pricing, shipment volumes, new product introductions, changes in product mixes, changes in our purchase price of fabricated wafers and assembly and test service costs, the cost of raw materials for our embedded systems products, manufacturing yields and inventory write downs, if any. In general, newly introduced products and products with higher performance and more features tend to be priced higher than older, more mature products. Average selling prices in the semiconductor industry typically decline as products mature. Consistent with this historical trend, we expect that the average selling prices of our products will decline as they mature. In the normal course of business, we will seek to offset the effect of declining average selling prices on existing products by reducing manufacturing costs and introducing new and higher value-added products. More recently, certain of our suppliers have increased costs although this increase did not have a material impact on our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018. If we are unable to maintain overall average selling prices or offset any declines in average selling prices with realized savings on product costs, our gross margin will decline.

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Investment in growth.  We have invested, and intend to continue to invest, in expanding our operations, increasing our headcount, developing our products and differentiated technologies to support our growth and expanding our infrastructure. We expect our total operating expenses to increase in the foreseeable future to meet our growth objectives. We plan to continue to invest in our sales and support operations throughout the world, with a particular focus in adding additional sales and field applications personnel to further broaden our support and coverage of our existing customer base, in addition to developing new customer relationships and generating design wins. We also intend to continue to invest additional resources in research and development to support the development of our products and differentiated technologies. Any investments we make in our sales and marketing organization or research and development will occur in advance of experiencing any benefits from such investments, and the return on these investments may be lower than we expect. In addition, as we invest in expanding our operations internationally, our business and results will become further subject to the risks and challenges of international operations, including higher operating expenses and the impact of legal and regulatory developments outside the United States.

Components of Our Results of Operations

Revenue

For the year ended December 31, 2018 we derived approximately 77% of our revenue through the sale of our NVM products to OEMs and ODMs, primarily through distributors.  We generated 65%, 74%, and 71% of our revenue from distributors for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.  We derived approximately 23% of our revenue from the operations of S3 Semiconductors and Echelon during the year ended December 31, 2018.  Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. We sell the majority of our NVM products to distributors and generally recognize revenue when we ship the product directly to the distributors since title and risk of loss transfers at that time.

 

Because our distributors market and sell their products worldwide, our revenue by geographic location is not necessarily indicative of where our end customers’ product sales and design win activity occur, but rather of where their manufacturing operations occur.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

Cost of revenue primarily consists of costs paid to our third-party manufacturers for wafer fabrication, assembly and testing of our NVM products, raw material purchases for embedded products, and write-downs of NVM and embedded inventory for excess and obsolete inventories. To a lesser extent, cost of revenue also includes depreciation of test equipment and expenses relating to manufacturing support activities, including personnel-related costs for both NVM and embedded products, logistics and quality assurance and shipping.  Cost of revenue for ASIC and IP products is driven primarily by personnel-related costs including outside consultants along with facilities costs.

Our gross margin has been and will continue to be affected by a variety of factors, including the timing of changes in pricing, shipment volumes, new product introductions, changes in product mix, changes in our purchase price of fabricated wafers and assembly and test service costs, manufacturing yields and inventory write downs, if any. We expect our gross margin to fluctuate over time depending on the factors described above.

Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses consist of research and development, selling, general and administrative expense, amortization of intangible assets, acquisition related expenses and impairment and other charges. Personnel-related costs, including salaries, benefits, bonuses and stock-based compensation, are the most significant component of each of our operating expense categories. In addition, in the near term we expect to hire additional personnel, primarily in our

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selling and marketing functions, and increase research and development expenditures. Accordingly, we expect our operating expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we invest in these initiatives.

Research and Development. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs for the design and development of our products and technologies. Additional research and development expenses include product prototype costs, amortization of mask costs and other materials costs, external test and characterization expenses, depreciation, amortization of design tool software licenses, amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets and allocated overhead expenses. We also incur costs related to outsourced research and development activities and joint venture activities. We expect research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we continue to improve our product features and increase our portfolio of solutions.

Selling, general and administrative.  Selling, general, and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs for our sales, business development, marketing, and applications engineering activities, third-party sales representative commissions, promotional and other marketing expenses, amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets and travel expenses. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related costs, consulting expenses and professional fees. Professional fees principally consist of legal, audit, tax and accounting services. We expect sales, general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we hire additional personnel, increase our marketing activities, and make improvements to our infrastructure and incur additional costs for legal, insurance and accounting expenses associated with our recent acquisitions.

Amortization of intangible assets.  Amortization of intangible assets is the periodic expense related to the use of intangible assets created as a result of the Atmel, S3 Semiconductors and Echelon acquisitions.  The periodic expense is based on useful lives determined as part of the initial valuation of the assets acquired.

Acquisition related expenses.  Acquisition related expenses are those costs incurred as a result of the S3 Semiconductors and Echelon acquisition and include banking fees, legal, accounting, and tax fees, and certain professional fees including costs related to the valuation of each acquisition.

Impairment and other charges.  Impairment and other charges are costs incurred related to write-downs of certain equipment and assets, terminated projects and excess facilities.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net is comprised of interest income (expense) and other income (expense). Interest expense consists of cash interest on our outstanding debt and the amortization of debt discount. Other expense, net consists of foreign exchange gains and losses and the change in the fair value of the earn-out liability which was part of the S3 Semiconductors share purchase agreement. The earn-out liability is tied to certain financial performance criteria defined in the S3 Semiconductors share purchase agreement. Our foreign currency exchange gains and losses relate to transactions and asset and liability balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We expect our foreign currency gains and losses to continue to fluctuate in the future due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.

Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes consists primarily of U.S. federal and state income taxes in the United States and income taxes in certain foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We have a full valuation allowance for deferred tax assets, including net operating loss carryforwards, and tax credits related primarily to research and development. We expect to maintain this full valuation allowance for the foreseeable future.

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Results of Operations

The following table sets forth our consolidated results of operations for the periods shown:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

 

 

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

Revenue, net

 

$

83,490

 

$

56,112

 

$

43,968

Cost of revenue

 

 

47,429

 

 

28,637

 

 

22,618

Gross profit

 

 

36,061

 

 

27,475

 

 

21,350

Operating expenses:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Research and development

 

 

20,273

 

 

13,623

 

 

15,412

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

22,592

 

 

17,461

 

 

16,968

Amortization of intangible assets

 

 

3,871

 

 

1,222

 

 

1,235

Acquisition related expenses

 

 

7,029

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Impairment and other charges

 

 

2,680

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Gain from settlement with former foundry supplier

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(1,962)

Total operating expenses

 

 

56,445

 

 

32,306

 

 

31,653

Loss from operations

 

 

(20,384)

 

 

(4,831)

 

 

(10,303)

Other income (expense):

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Interest expense, net

 

 

(3,791)

 

 

(753)

 

 

(1,275)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

2,656

 

 

(3)

 

 

(50)

Total other income (expense), net

 

 

(1,135)

 

 

(756)

 

 

(1,325)

Loss before provision for (benefit from) for income taxes

 

 

(21,519)

 

 

(5,587)

 

 

(11,628)

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

 

(79)

 

 

101

 

 

(16)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

 

$

(21,440)

 

$

(5,688)

 

$

(11,612)

Net loss per share:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

Basic and diluted

 

$

(0.85)

 

$

(0.31)

 

$

(0.77)

Weighted average number of shares used in computing net

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

  loss per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted

 

 

25,144,562

 

 

18,591,308

 

 

15,085,973

 

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016

Revenue, net

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31, 

 

 

Change 2018 - 2017

 

 

 

Change 2017 - 2016

 

 

 

2018

 

    

2017

 

 

2016

 

    

Amount

    

%

 

 

    

Amount

    

%

 

Revenue, net

$

83,490

 

$

56,112

 

$

43,968

 

$

27,378

 

49

%

 

$

12,144

 

28

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31, 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

 

 

(in thousands)

United States

 

$

23,188

 

$

11,667

 

$

6,301

Rest of Americas

 

 

2,790

 

 

245

 

 

483

Europe

 

 

17,514

 

 

9,546

 

 

5,809

Asia Pacific

 

 

39,463

 

 

34,263

 

 

31,051

Rest of world

 

 

535

 

 

391

 

 

324

Total

 

$

83,490

 

$

56,112

 

$

43,968

 

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Revenue increased by $27.4 million, or 49%, for 2018 as compared to 2017.  This increase was due primarily to increased shipments of Standard Flash products to Tier 1 OEM customers along with contributions from the S3 Semiconductors and Echelon acquisitions of $19.3 million.

Revenue increased by $12.1 million, or 28%, for 2017 as compared to 2016.  This increase was due primarily to an increase in sales of our DataFlash and to a lesser extent, sales of our Standard Serial Flash products.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31, 

 

 

Change 2018 - 2017

 

Change 2017 - 2016

 

 

    

2018

 

2017

    

2016

 

    

Amount

    

 

Amount

    

 

Cost of revenue

 

$

47,429

 

$

28,637

 

$

22,618

 

 

$

18,792

 

66

%  

$

6,019

 

27

%  

Gross profit

 

 

36,061

 

 

27,475

 

 

21,350

 

 

 

8,586

 

31

%  

 

6,125

 

29

%  

Gross margin

 

 

43

% 

 

49

% 

 

49

%  

 

 

  

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

 

Cost of revenue increased by $18.8 million, or 66%, for 2018 as compared to 2017.  This increase was due primarily to increased shipments of Standard Flash products to Tier 1 OEM customers which carry a higher average unit cost, increased expenses related to our operations organization, and costs associated with our revenues from ASIC and Embedded products.

Our gross margin percentage decreased from 49% to 43%, or 6 percentage points, for 2018 as compared to 2017.  This decrease was due primarily to product mix impacts as we generated a higher proportion of our revenues from sales to Tier 1 OEM customers of Standard Flash memory products which generally carry lower gross margins than our other memory products along with increased expenses within our operations organization.

Cost of revenue increased by $6.0 million, or 27%, for 2017 as compared to 2016.  This increase was due primarily to increased unit volume associated with our increase in revenue during 2017.

There was no material change in gross margin in 2017 as compared to 2016.

Operating Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31, 

 

Change 2018 - 2017

 

 

Change 2017 - 2016

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

    

Amount

    

 

    

Amount

    

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

Research and development

 

$

20,273

 

$

13,623

 

$

15,412

 

$

6,650

 

49

%

 

$

(1,789)

 

(12)

%

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

22,592

 

 

17,461

 

 

16,968

 

 

5,131

 

29

 

 

 

493

 

 3

 

Amortization of intangible assets

 

 

3,871

 

 

1,222

 

 

1,235

 

 

2,649

 

217

 

 

 

(13)

 

(1)

 

Acquisition related expenses

 

 

7,029

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

7,029

 

100

 

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

Impairment and other charges

 

 

2,680

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

2,680

 

100

 

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

Gain from settlement with former foundry supplier

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

(1,962)

 

 

 —

 

 —

 

 

 

1,962

 

(100)

 

Total operating expenses

 

$

56,445

 

$

32,306

 

$

31,653

 

$

24,139

 

75

%

 

$

653

 

 2

%

 

Research and Development. Research and development expense increased by $6.7 million, or 49%, in 2018 as compared to 2017.  This increase was due primarily to an increase in outside consulting costs of $2.7 million, an increase in personnel related costs of $2.0 million, an increase in facilities costs related primarily to our S3 Semiconductors and Echelon acquisitions of $0.6 million, an increase in depreciation and amortization of $0.5 million, an increase in materials costs of $0.4 million, and an increase in travel and other outside services of $0.4 million. 

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Research and development expense decreased by $1.8 million or 12%, in 2017 as compared to 2016.  The decrease was due primarily to a $1.2 million decrease in costs related to joint activities due to the renegotiation of our joint development agreement with TowerJazz Panasonic Semiconductor Company, a $0.4 million reduction in material costs, a $0.4 million reduction in facilities costs due to elimination of offsite lab rent expense and $0.2 million reduction in external test and characterization expenses, partially offset by a $0.4 million increase in personnel related costs.

Selling, General and Administrative. Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $5.1 million, or 29%, in 2018 as compared to 2017.  This increase was primarily due to an increase in personnel related expenses of $2.4 million, an increase in facilities related costs of $0.9 million, an increase in consulting expense of $0.7 million, and increase in travel and tradeshows of $0.6 million, an increase in accounting and tax services of $0.4 million, and an increase in third party rep commissions of $0.1 million.

Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $0.5 million, or 3%, in 2017 as compared to 2016 and this increase was due to personnel-related costs.

Amortization of Intangible Assets.  Amortization of intangible assets increased by $2.7 million, or 217%, for 2018 as compared to 2017.  This increase was due primarily to additional amortization related to the S3 Semiconductors acquisition of $1.6 million and additional amortization related to the Echelon acquisition of $1.1 million. Amortization of intangible assets decreased by $14,000, or 1%, for 2017 as compared to 2016 as the non-compete asset was fully amortized during 2017.

Acquisition Related Expenses.  Acquisition related expenses increased by $7.0 million for 2018 as compared to 2017.  The increase was due primarily to banking fees incurred of $2.7 million, severance payments related to the Echelon acquisition of $1.9 million, legal fees of $1.8 million, professional services including valuation services of $0.3 million and accounting and tax fees of $0.3 million. There were no acquisition related expenses incurred in either 2017 or 2016.

Impairment and Other Charges.  Impairment and other charges increased by $2.7 million for 2018 as compared to 2017.  The increase was due primarily to write-downs of certain fixed and intangible assets of $1.5 million, costs related to excess facilities of $0.6 million, the cost of exiting a development agreement associated with certain memory products of $0.4 million, and costs associated with exiting the lighting business acquired from Echelon of $0.2 million. There were no impairment charges incurred in either 2017 or 2016.

Other Income (Expense), Net

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year ended December 31, 

 

Change 2018 - 2017

 

 

Change 2017 - 2016

 

 

    

2018

    

2017

    

2016

    

Amount

    

%

 

 

Amount

 

%

 

Interest expense, net

 

$

(3,791)

 

 

(753)

 

 

(1,275)

 

$

(3,038)

 

(403)

%  

 

$

(522)

 

(41)

%  

Other income (expense), net

 

 

2,656

 

 

(3)

 

 

(50)

 

 

2,659

 

88,633

 

 

 

(47)

 

(94)

 

Total other income (expense), net

 

$

(1,135)

 

$

(756)

 

$

(1,325)

 

$

(379)

 

(50)

%  

 

$

(569)

 

(43)

%  

 

Interest expense, net increased by $3.0 million or 403% in 2018 as compared to 2017 primarily due to additional cash interest of $2.1 million and amortization of debt discount of $1.0 million as we increased our level of indebtedness during the year in connection with the S3 Semiconductors acquisition.

 

Interest expense, net decreased by $0.5 million or 41% in 2017 as compared to 2016 primarily due to a reduction in net borrowings of $4.7 million.

Other income (expense), net increased by $2.7 million in 2018 as compared to 2017 due primarily to changes in the fair value of an earn-out liability incurred in connection with the S3 Semiconductors acquisition.

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Other income (expense), net decreased by $47,000 in 2017 as compared to 2016 due primarily to reduced foreign currency transaction costs.

Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes